To facilitate the restructuring of the higher education sector in Central and Eastern European countries through inter-university cooperation, exchanges between students and teaching staff and industry-university cooperation between these countries and the countries of the Community, with the possibility of participation by the non-Community G-24 countries.


Council Decision 90/233/EEC of 7 May 1990 establishing a trans-European mobility scheme for university studies (TEMPUS).

Decision 93/246/EEC of 29 April 1993 adopting the second phase of the trans-European cooperation scheme for higher education (Tempus II) (1994-1998).


The Tempus programme forms part of the overall programme of Community aid for the economic restructuring of the countries of Central/Eastern Europe known as PHARE, within which training is one of the priority areas for cooperation.

The Decision of 29 April 1993 provides for the extension of the programme to the republics of the former Soviet Union covered by Regulation (EEC, Euratom) No 2157/91 (TACIS programme).

The central and eastern European countries eligible for participation in Tempus are: Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Rumania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia and the Czech Republic.

The republics of the ex-Soviet Union participating in Tempus in 1993/1994 are Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. As of the 1994/1995 academic year, the republics of Moldova, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan will also be participating.

The term "university" is used to cover all types of post-secondary educational and vocational training establishments which offer qualifications or diplomas of that level, whatever such establishments may be called. The terms "enterprise" and "industry" are used to indicate all types of economic activity, including not only large but also small and medium-sized enterprises, whatever their legal status, public and local authorities, independent economic organizations (chambers of commerce and industry and/or their equivalents), professional associations and organizations representing employers or employees.


To aid in restructuring and adapting university education in these countries to meet the new needs of the market economy through:

The main vehicles for ensuring such cooperation are the Joint European Projects (JEPs), which involve the participation of at least one university in an eligible country and of partner organizations - one of which must be a university - in at least two Community Member States. In the case of JEPs with a regional character, financed under the PHARE regional facility, universities in at least two eligible countries must be involved.

In parallel with assistance given to basic projects of this type (Action 1), Individual Mobility Grants (Action 2) are also provided for staff (teaching assignments, practical placements, continuing training, retraining and updating and visits) and for students (periods of study or practical placements). As from 1992/93, however, student mobility will take place exclusively in the context of the JEPs. Limited support is also available for extending European higher education associations to cover the eligible countries, for publications and other information activities connected with Tempus as well as for surveys and studies intended to facilitate its monitoring and evaluation. Provision has also been made for supporting exchanges between young people and other connected activities designed to increase young people's awareness of the European dimension.

Tempus is implemented by the Commission with the assistance of a committee composed of representatives from the Member States. The Commission cooperates with appropriate agencies in each of the eligible countries.

Within the limits of the amount which the European Community allocates to them for measures to support economic and social reforms, the eligible countries notify the Commission of the amounts which they would like to be made available for the Tempus programme.

The Commission ensures consistency between Tempus and other actions at Community level in this field, within the Community or in the eligible countries, with particular reference to the activities of the European Training Foundation. It ensures coordination with initiatives by non-member countries or by universities and enterprises in these countries which relate to the same field of action as Tempus.

4) deadline for implementation of the legislation in the member states

Not applicable.

5) date of entry into force (if different from the above)

01.07.1990 (start-up of the initial pilot phase)

6) references

Official Journal L 131, 23.05.1990Official Journal L 112/93, 06.05.1993

7) follow-up work

Annual report from the Commission (7 May 1990 - 31 July 1991) (SEC(92) 226 final).

The total funds available for the Tempus programme amounted to ECU 95.5 million during this period, covering both initiatives supported by national contributions allocated to Tempus by each of the eligible countries and a regional budget financed under the PHARE regional facility.

During the first 15 months of implementation of Tempus, there were 2 739 applications for support of which a total of 471 were supported.

The approved JEPs involved cooperation and mobility activities between organisations in the European Community and partners in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the former GDR, Bulgaria, Romania and former Yugoslavia.

The European Community also awarded Individual Mobility Grants to approximately 1 400 students and 1 200 teachers travelling from the eligible countries to the Member States, and to 69 students and 595 teachers from the Community.

Moreover, 77 Complementary Measures projects (out of a total of 608 applications submitted) and 97 youth exchange activities (out of a total 277 applications) were supported during the same period.

Annual report from the Commission (1 August 1991- 31 July 1992) (COM(93) 30 final).

The PHARE programme allocated a budget of ECU 98.3 million to Tempus projects for the 1992/93 academic year, or 40 % more than in 1991. Certain projects were developed in interaction and cooperation with the COMET and ERASMUS programmes.

Of the 1 979 applications, 234 were accepted. They cover engineering and the applied sciences (23.5 %), business management (17.1 %) environmental protection (10.3 %), and the medical sciences (9 %). In addition to these new projects, 401 existing projects were renewed for the first or second time. The programmes's most striking contribution concerns modernisation of administrative and scientific equipment, libraries, language laboratories, the creation of new courses or the revamping of existing ones and the creation of links between universities in the eligible countries and firms in the Member States.

The JEPs selected in 1992 included cooperation and mobility activities between organisations located in the European Community and partners in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovenia.

The European Community awarded individual mobility grants to 467 staff members travelling from eligible countries to the Member States and 101 teachers in the Community wishing to teach in or visit one of the eligible countries.

A total of 24 Complementary Measures and 65 youth exchange activities were supported during the same period.

Report from the Commission: evaluation of the Tempus programme (May 1992) (COM(93) 29 final).

The European Commission commissioned Coopers and Lybrand Europe to conduct an external assessment of the Tempus programme during its last initial phase (1990-1991). The report, which will serve as a basis for preparing Commission proposals concerning a second phase of Tempus, shows that the Tempus programme is very popular both in the East and West. The projects which have been implemented have borne fruit in a relatively short time. Nevertheless, it is indispensable to clarify the objectives and role of Tempus in each country by choosing between support for higher education reform and overcoming the shortage of labour and skills

Annual report from the Commission (1 August 1992 - 31 July 1993) (COM(94) 142 final).

There was a decline (from 30 % to 24 %) in the eligible countries' interest in projects in the field of applied sciences and technology at the end of 1992/1993. The number of projects relating to commercial administration/management studies has remained stable (17 %, while projects relating to applied social sciences, medicine and environmental studies became more popular.

Study of problems which have emerged in central and eastern Europe during the first three years of the Tempus programme. The higher education systems in central and eastern Europe have come up against considerable problems as a result of the heritage of the last 40 to 50 years, notably regarding the rigid divide between teaching and research, between scientific academies and the universities, the inadequate diversification of higher education in most of these countries and the extent and nature of state intervention.

Practical obstacles to reform.

a. Resource constraints

The most obvious obstacle has been the shortage of national and foreign financial resources, which has led to a brain drain towards the private sector in the domain of management and information technology.

b. Administrative and legal constraints

The factors of resistance to change are not confined to higher education institutes alone, but are also present in the administrative systems of the eligible countries.

State of development and work done during the 1992/93 academic year.

In its third year of operation, the Tempus programme focused on a certain number of key targets to achieve its global objective of supporting the eligible countries during the transformation phase of their higher education systems with a view to maximising the impact on the economic and social restructuring provided for in the PHARE programme, and involving notably:

Impact of the Tempus programme.

The Tempus projects have had a considerable impact in the faculties of the higher education institutes.

Major perceived achievements in the context of the Tempus programmes are:

Annual report from the Commission (1 August 1993 - 31 July 1994) [COM(95) 344 final].

The Tempus (PHARE) budget. The main factor which conditions Tempus budgetary arrangements is the fact that the programme is an integral part of PHARE in the 11 partner countries of Central and Eastern Europe. A total budget of over 95,9 million ecus was granted for the year.

Establishment of national priorities and project selection procedures: the priorities for implementing Tempus are the result of a consultation procedure between the Commission and the authorities in each partner country; the priorities for 1994-95 were established in the first half of 1993 and published in the Applicants' guide; projects are selected, within the limits of the Tempus share of the PHARE budget for each partner country, under a codecision procedure in which the merits of the projects are assessed by the Commission and the national authorities.

Activities concerning JEP grants: 975 (71%) of the 1 365 JEP applications submitted focused on the areas considered as priorities by the national authorities of the partner country concerned; three new categories of grant were introduced under Tempus for the 1993-94 academic year, two of which were classified under JEP+ and CME+ (complementary measures), in order to reduce the disparity between the needs as defined by national priorities and the initiatives of the European academic world to cater for these needs; all in all 11 JEP+ were selected and have commenced their work for the 1994-95 academic year.

Selection of JENs: the JENs, which came into being in 1993 and for which the first grants were awarded in 1994, were set up on the basis of the most successful JEPs which had reached the end of their period of funding; 769 005 ecus, shared among 30 projects, were allocated to these activities in 1993-94.

Individual mobility grants: the procedure for allocating these is similar to that used for the selection of JEPs: under the two selection rounds for 1993-94, 1 491 individual visits to establishments in the EU were made by university staff from the partner countries, for a total of 3 573 752 ecus.

Complementary measures (CME): under the two selection rounds for 1993-94, 19 grants (total cost: 188 595 ecus) were paid out to associations to allow them to extend their academic networks to Central and Eastern Europe, to finance publications, studies and surveys to publicise the objectives of Tempus by encouraging and facilitating cooperation.

Youth activities (YEX): as in previous years a limited budget was set aside in 1993-94 for youth exchanges and similar activities designed to foster the organisation of cultural intercation and to allow young people (15-25 years) not normally involved in higher education to take part in an experience with a European dimension; a total of 114 projects were selected under the two selection rounds for 1993-94 (for a total of 1 112 464 ecus).

Monitoring activities: the Commission has maintained a comprehensive programme of internal monitoring procedures for all Tempus activities.

Monographs of the PHARE partner countries: studies were conducted in 1994 on the impact of Tempus in seven of the eleven partner countries which have been taking part in the Tempus (PHARE) programme since 1991.

The Tempus (Tacis) budget: the overall budget to finance Tempus (Tacis) projects in 1993-94 was 3,42 million ecus; for 1994-95 a total of 21,73 million ecus was earmarked for the financing of projects.

The pre-JEP strategy and the definition of projects: Tempus II activities were introduced during the 1994-95 academic year; in order to give preference to the implementation of European Tempus (Tacis) projects which are currently viable, the Commission undertook preliminry action in 1993-94 by financing pre-JEPs lasting a year; these focused on the preparatory mobility of staff between universities in view of further cooperation at the institutional level; the support provided for these projects was to focus on the following priority subject areas: humanities and social sciences; political science and economics; modern European languages; improvement of university management; given the main objectives of the Tacis programme, the Commission decided that special attention would also be paid to projects relating to agriculture, energy and transport.

Analysis by priority subject area: of the 264 pre-JEP applications received under the 1993-94 selection round 222 were for the priority subject areas; for the 1994-95 selection round 335 of the 408 pre-JEP applications submitted were for the priority subject areas.

Tempus (PHARE) and Tempus (Tacis) information activities: a general information brochure on the programme has been published in the nine Community languages.

Main changes and developments in Tempus 1990-94: it is increasingly clear that as long as Tempus continues to be financed out of the PHARE budget the reform of higher education in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe will have to be considered as a major component in the support the Community provides to the process of social, economic and political reform.

Commission report on the evaluation of the first phase of the Tempus programme 1990/91 - 1993/94 [COM(96) 428 final].

The TEMPUS programme has been very well received by the partner countries in central and eastern Europe. Although their overall quality is constantly improving, a majority of the applications had to be turned down because of budgetary constraints.

The projects supported by Tempus I can on the whole be rated as successful and important for the development of higher education in the CEEC. However, the potential opportunities were not exploited to the full to support the dissemination of the results and the knock-on effects of the project activities beyond certain "islands" of innovation in the departments and faculties supported.

The design of TEMPUS has gradually been tailored more closely to the needs of each individual member of the CEEC. This development reflects a growing awareness on the part of all the players involved in higher education at national level of what TEMPUS has to offer.

The administration of TEMPUS in the CEEC may be considered as effective and commensurate with the programme's complexity and the need for continuous adaptation, given the number of institutions and disciplines involved and the gamut of programme measures.

Further efforts will be necessary, at least in certain partner countries, to make real and substantial progress towards the renewal and restructuring of higher education.

8) commission implementing measures