The construction sector accounts nowadays for around 30 million jobs in the EU. Buildings also represent 40% of energy use and 33% of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. The European Economic Recovery Plan, launched a year ago to address the current crisis, includes a new Research Public-Private Partnership (PPP) aimed at developing building and district concepts having the potential to reduce energy use. The "Energy-efficient Buildings" (EeB) initiative is a € 1 billion programme in which the European Commission and industry will support research on sustainable technologies for the EU... construction sector. The aim is to develop energy-efficient materials and systems for new and renovated buildings which can help to radically reduce their energy consumption and C02 emissions. In these Research Priorities for the Definition of a multi-annual Roadmap and Longer Term Strategy for the EeB PPP, besides the horizontal aspects, three major challenges have been identified: (i) Refurbishment to transform existing buildings into energy-efficient buildings, (ii) Neutral or energy-positive new buildings and (iii) Energy-efficient districts and communities. The public-private efforts to support research in these areas will contribute to a successful European strategy for industrial growth in a greener economy.