This booklet gives a short overview of research projects focusing on the brain and its diseases that were funded by the European Union (EU) in the period 2002-2009. The Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is the main EU instrument for funding research. To date, the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes invested more than EUR 639 million to support projects investigating brain function and dysfunction. Brain diseases are responsible for more than 35% of Europe total disease burden. The ultimate objective of EU funding to brain research is to help fighting and eventually... defeat brain diseases. Basic and clinical research on the central and peripheral nervous systems and their diseases will help developing new therapies, better diagnostic tools, neural prosthesis for the paralysed, individualised disease treatments and improved mental health for the benefit of European patients.