The identification of cancer types and subtypes based on pathology remains the predominant way of cataloguing cancers. The gender-related cancer catalogue groups several cancer types of particular importance within the Sixth Framework Programme's activities - those that affect the sexual organs. Gender-related cancers are common cancers and represent a major impact on public health. Breast and prostate cancer are currently the second and fourth most common cancers in Europe and their incidence is still increasing. Due to the high mortality rate, and also to the fact that the affected organs... are linked to reproduction and nurturing, gender-related cancers represent a major societal burden with large numbers of years of life lost and high psychological impact. However, major breakthroughs have been achieved in understanding the causes of these diseases allowing better prevention, earlier diagnosis and better treatment. Pharmaco-genetics and -genomics have resulted in the first tailored treatments for women suffering from breast cancer. Together, research on gender-related cancers, as funded by the European Commission, and as presented in this catalogue, should lead to reduced incidence and better survival and, overall, a higher quality of life for patients.