This Cedefop comparative study discusses curriculum reforms geared towards learning outcomes in 32 European countries participating in the Education and Training 2020 process. Based on an extensive literature review, visits and interviews conducted with various stakeholders in curriculum policy-making and practice, this study provides insight into two specific sectors: tourism and electronics. The findings show how national policies that seek to raise VET attractiveness and improve competitiveness through skills development, along with European policies and tools for transparency, have... intensified curriculum reform over the past decade in Europe. Learning outcomes provide the foundation for curriculum design in all European countries, although significant differences are to be found in the approaches adopted. National variations with respect to the conceptualisation of competence and learning outcomes are one of the factors that may explain such differences. Based on an analysis of the relationship between written and taught curriculum, the study’s findings indicate that the way learning outcomes are defined and grouped and the way they connect to other material in the curriculum, may have implications for teaching and learners’ assessment. This study discusses these implications and proposes key policy messages for effective curriculum design processes and curriculum delivery that may benefit learners.