For a long time women have been expected to live up to traditional gender roles that are held by both men and women in mainstream society. These gender roles often resulted in women being dissuaded from involvement in sectors of society, including participating and competing in sport. Since the Olympic Games in Paris in 1900, where 22 women out of 997 athletes participated in 5 sports, the involvement of women in the Olympic Movement at all levels has changed gradually. Changes in gender roles in response to changing economic, social and political circumstances also had an influence on sport,... especially in relation to participation. At the decision making level the progress has been less impressive: there were no women members of the International Olympic Committee between 1896 and 1981. In 2014 there are 24 female IOC members out of 115 Members. Before the start of the 2012 Olympic Games in London Viviane Reding, Vice-President of the European Commission, and Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner responsible for sport, congratulated the presidents of the IOC and IPC on the very first Olympic Games where women were competing in every sport in their respective programmes.