Nanotechnology has the potential to contribute to energy sustainability by reducing consumption, improving the infrastructure for energy generation, transmission and use, and offering new methods for energy production. To achieve this, the field of nanotechnology and energy needs to have a solid research base; routes for new developments in energy technology to be further advanced and commercialised; and a market open to nanotechnology energy products, in the context of appropriate regulation and standards. Energy sustainability is one of the main global challenges facing the world today. The... European Energy Strategy is seeking to tackle that challenge through measures to improve energy efficiency, increase the share of renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gases. This report looks, from a research, development and deployment (market) perspective, at the role of nanotechnology in achieving those energy goals and at the overall landscape in Europe for nanotechnology and energy.