The ability to enforce a right is central to transforming fundamental rights from theory into concrete reality. Access to justice is not only a right in itself but also an enabling and empowering right since it allows individuals to enforce their rights and obtain redress. This report, the first study of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights to focus on this issue, provides an overview of challenges to and opportunities for the realisation of access to justice. It provides a comparative analysis of procedures available at the European and international levels and their relationship... with national judicial systems. Its main focus, however, is on national judicial systems, and the procedures and practices through which access to justice is delivered. It identifies concrete obstacles such as strict time limits for lodging complaints, restrictive rules on legal standing, excessive legal costs and the complexity of legal procedures.