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5.9.4. Bibliographic references

Reference to a complete work

The following order should be adopted:

(i)
author’s surname and initial(s) or first name followed by a comma;
(ii)
title of the work in italics and, where appropriate, edition number;
(iii)
publisher, place of publication, year of publication, relevant pages, etc.:
Butcher, J., Copy-editing: The Cambridge handbook, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1975.

Reference to part of a work (contribution or article) or an unpublished paper or mimeograph

The following order should be adopted:

(i)
author’s surname and initial(s) or first name followed by a comma;
(ii)
title of the contribution, article, unpublished paper or mimeograph, within quotation marks;
(iii)
title of the work in italics; where appropriate the number of the edition;
(iv)
publisher, place of publication, year of publication, relevant page(s):
Hamm, E., ‘Return of the English breakfast’, International Cuisine, Vol. X, No 1, Unwin, London, 1980, pp. 31-34.

Reference to a periodical or one of a series

The following order should be adopted:

(i)
if known, title of the article (within quotation marks);
(ii)
title of the periodical or the series (in italics);
(iii)
number, date or frequency;
(iv)
publisher, place of publication, year of publication:
‘Economic transformation in Hungary and Poland’, European Economy, No 43, March 1990, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1990, pp. 151-167.
NB:
Since 1.7.2009: ‘Publications Office of the European Union’. Make sure that the original name is kept for publications issued before that date.
Specific case

Where an author has two or more publications cited from the same year, it is best to avoid any possible confusion in the references and to make it easier for readers to search for a work in the bibliography. The year of publication should therefore be followed by a lower-case ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc., without a space.

The reference in the main text takes one of the following forms:

… according to Xxx [name of author] (2019b), the strategy, developed along five separate axes, has allowed …

… the strategy, developed along five separate axes (Xxx, 2019b), has allowed …

In this case, the entries in the bibliography have the year in the second position, between brackets, and not in the last or second-last position:

Cini, M. and Pérez-Solórzano Borragán, N. (2019), European Union Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

European Commission (2020a), Biodegradability of Plastics in the Open Environment, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

European Commission (2020b), Compendium of 2019 European Language Label projects, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

European Commission (2020c), Erasmus+ – Annual report 2019, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

European Court of Auditors (2020), Our Activities in 2019 — Annual Activity Report of the European Court of Auditors, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

General

For convenience, the usual abbreviations should be used: cont., p., Vol., etc. (see Annex A3). Any explanatory information such as publishing frequency, place of publication, etc., should be given in English, even if the publication is only available in another language.

Buigues, P., ‘Les enjeux sectoriels du marché intérieur’, Revue d’économie industrielle, No 45, monthly, Brussels, 1988.
Last updated: 18.6.2021
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