19.6.2007   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 158/34


Only the original UN/ECE texts have legal effect under international public law. The status and date of entry into force of this Regulation should be checked in the latest version of the UN/ECE status document TRANS/WP.29/343/, available at: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29fdocstts.html.

Regulation No 101 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars powered by an internal combustion engine only, or powered by a hybrid electric power train with regard to the measurement of the emission of carbon dioxide and fuel consumption and/or the measurement of electric energy consumption and electric range, and of categories M1 and N1 vehicles powered by an electric power train only with regard to the measurement of electric energy consumption and electric range

Addendum 100: Regulation No 101

Revision 2

Incorporating all valid text up to:

Supplement 6 to the original version of the Regulation — Date of entry into force: 4 April 2005

1.   SCOPE

This Regulation applies to the measurement of the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and fuel consumption, and/or to the measurement of electric energy consumption and electric range of category M1 vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only or by a hybrid electric power train, and to the measurement of electric energy consumption and electric range of categories M1 and N1 vehicles powered by an electric power train only (1).

2.   DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this Regulation,

2.1.   ‘Approval of a vehicle’ means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to the measurement of energy consumption (fuel or electric energy);

2.2.   ‘Vehicle type’ means a category of power driven vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as body, power train, transmission, traction battery (if applicable), tyres and unladen mass;

2.3.   ‘Unladen mass’ means the mass of the vehicle in running order without crew, passengers or load, but with the fuel tank full (if any), cooling liquid, service and traction batteries, oils, onboard charger, portable charger, tools and spare wheel, whatever is appropriate for the vehicle considered and if provided by the manufacturer of the vehicle;

2.4.   ‘Reference mass’ means the unladen mass of the vehicle increased by a uniform figure of 100 kg;

2.5.   ‘Maximum mass’ means the technically permissible maximum mass declared by the manufacturer (this mass may be greater than the maximum mass authorised by the national administration);

2.6.   ‘Test mass’ for the pure electric vehicles, means the ‘reference mass’ for the category M1 vehicles and the unladen mass plus half the full load for the category N1 vehicles;

2.7.   ‘Cold start device’ means a device which enriches the air/fuel mixture of the engine temporarily, to assist starting;

2.8.   ‘Starting aid’ means a device which assists engine starting without enrichment of the air/fuel mixture, e.g. glow plug, changed injection timing, etc.;

2.9.   ‘Power train’ means the system of energy storage device(s), energy converter(s) and transmission(s) that converts stored energy to mechanical energy delivered at the wheels for propulsion of the vehicle;

2.10.   ‘Internal combustion engine vehicle’ means vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine only;

2.11.   ‘Electric power train’ means a system consisting of one or more electric energy storage devices (e.g. a battery, electromechanical flywheel or super capacitor), one or more electric power conditioning devices and one or more electric machines that convert stored electric energy to mechanical energy delivered at the wheels for propulsion of the vehicle;

2.12.   ‘Pure electric vehicle’ means vehicle powered by an electric power train only;

‘Hybrid power train’ means a power train with at least two different energy converters and two different energy storage systems (on-board the vehicle) for the purpose of vehicle propulsion;

2.13.1.   ‘Hybrid electric power train’ means a power train that, for the purpose of mechanical propulsion, draws energy from both of the following on-vehicle sources of stored energy/power:

a consumable fuel

an electrical energy/power storage device (e.g.: battery, capacitor, flywheel/generator …)

‘Hybrid vehicle (HV)’ means a vehicle powered by a hybrid power train;

2.14.1.   ‘Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)’ means a vehicle powered by a hybrid electric power train;

2.15.   ‘Electric range’, for vehicles powered by an electric power train only or by a hybrid electric power train with off-vehicle charging, means distance that can be driven electrically on one fully charged battery (or other electric energy storage device) as measured according to the procedure described in Annex 9.

2.16.   ‘Periodically regenerating system’ means an anti-pollution device (e.g. catalytic converter, particulate trap) that requires a periodical regeneration process in less than 4 000 km of normal vehicle operation. If a regeneration of an anti-pollution device occurs at least once per Type I test and that has already regenerated at least once during the vehicle preparation cycle, it will be considered as a continuously regenerating system, which does not require a special test procedure. Annex 10 does not apply to continuously regenerating systems.

At the request of the manufacturer, the test procedure specific to periodically regenerating systems will not apply to a regenerative device if the manufacturer provides data to the type approval authority that, during cycles where regeneration occurs, emission of CO2 does not exceed the declared value by more than 4 % after agreement of the technical service.

3.   APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL

3.1.   The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the measurement of the emission of carbon dioxide and fuel consumption and/or to the measurement of electric energy consumption and electric range shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

It shall be accompanied by the under-mentioned documents in triplicate and the following particulars:

3.2.1.   A description of the essential characteristics of the vehicle comprising all the particulars referred to in Annex 1, Annex 2 or Annex 3, depending on the power train type. At the request of the technical service in charge of the tests or the manufacturer, complementary technical information could be considered for specific vehicles which are particularly fuel efficient.

3.2.2.   Description of the basic features of the vehicle, including those used in drafting Annex 4.

3.3.   A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the technical services responsible for conducting approval tests. During the test, the technical service will check that this vehicle, if powered by an internal combustion engine only or by a hybrid electric power train, conforms to the limit values applicable to that type, as described in Regulation No 83.

3.4.   The competent authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory provisions to ensure an effective check of conformity of production before approval of the vehicle type is granted.

4.   APPROVAL

4.1.   If the emissions of CO2 and fuel consumption and/or the electric energy consumption and electric range of the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation have been measured according to the conditions specified in paragraph 5. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.

4.2.   An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present 00, corresponding to the original version of the Regulation) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type.

4.3.   Notice of approval or of extension or refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this Regulation.

There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation, an international approval mark consisting of:

4.4.1.   A circle surrounding the letter ‘E’ followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval (2).

4.4.2.   The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter ‘R’, a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1.

4.5.   If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1.

4.6.   The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

4.7.   The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate.

4.8.   Annex 5 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of the approval mark.

5.   SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS

5.1.   General

The components liable to affect the emissions of CO2 and fuel consumption or the electric energy consumption shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibrations to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation.

5.2.   Description of tests for vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only

5.2.1.   The emissions of CO2 and fuel consumption shall be measured according to the test procedure described in Annex 6.

5.2.2.   For CO2 emissions the results of the test must be expressed in grams per kilometre (g/km) rounded to the nearest whole number.

5.2.3.   Fuel consumption values must be expressed in litres per 100 km (in the case of petrol, LPG or diesel) or in m3 per 100 km (in the case of NG), and are calculated according to paragraph 1.4.3 of Annex 6 by the carbon balance method using the measured emissions of CO2 and the other carbon related emissions (CO and HC). The results will be rounded to the first decimal place.

5.2.4.   For the purpose of the calculation mentioned in paragraph 5.2.3, the fuel consumption shall be expressed in appropriate units and the following fuel characteristics shall be used:

(1)

density: measured on the test fuel according to ISO 3675 or an equivalent method. For petrol and diesel fuel the density measured at 15 °C will be used; for LPG and natural gas a reference density will be used, as follows:

0,538 kg/litre for LPG

0,654 kg/m3 for NG (3)

(2)

hydrogen-carbon ratio: fixed values will be used which are:

1,85 for petrol

1,86 for diesel fuel

2,525 for LPG

4,00 for NG

5.3.   Description of tests for vehicles powered by an electric power train only

5.3.1.   The technical service in charge of the tests conducts the measurement of the electric energy consumption according to the method and test cycle described in Annex 7 to this Regulation.

5.3.2.   The technical service in charge of the tests conducts the measurement of the electric range of the vehicle according to the method described in Annex 9.

The electric range measured by this method is the only one which may be included in sales promotional material.

5.3.3.   The result of the electric energy consumption must be expressed in Watt hours per kilometre (Wh/km) and the range in km, both rounded to the nearest whole number.

5.4.   Description of tests for vehicles powered by a hybrid electric power train

5.4.1.   The technical service in charge of the tests conducts the measurement of the emissions of CO2 and of the electric energy consumption according to the test procedure described in Annex 8.

5.4.2.   The results of the test for CO2 emissions must be expressed in grams per kilometre (g/km) rounded to the nearest whole number.

5.4.3.   Fuel consumption values must be expressed in litres per 100 km (in the case of petrol, LPG or diesel) or in m3 per 100 km (in the case of NG), and are calculated according to paragraph 1.4.3 of Annex 6 by the carbon balance method using the measured emissions of CO2 and the other carbon related emissions (CO and HC). The results will be rounded to the first decimal place.

5.4.4.   For the purpose of the calculation mentioned in paragraph 5.4.3., the prescriptions and values of paragraph 5.2.4. shall apply.

5.4.5.   If applicable, the result of the electric energy consumption must be expressed in Watt hours per kilometre (Wh/km), rounded to the nearest whole number.

5.4.6.   The technical service in charge of the tests conducts the measurement of the electric range of the vehicle according to the method described in Annex 9 to this Regulation. The result shall be expressed in km, rounded to the nearest whole number.

The electric range measured by this method is the only one which may be included in sales promotional material and which may be used for the calculations of Annex 8.

5.5.   Interpretation of results

5.5.1.   The CO2 value or the value of electric energy consumption adopted as the type approval value shall be the value declared by the manufacturer if the value measured by the technical service does not exceed the declared value by more than 4 %. The measured value can be lower without any limitations.

In the case of vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only which are equipped with periodically regenerating systems as defined in paragraph 2.16., the results are multiplied by the factor Ki obtained from Annex 10 before being compared to the declared value.

5.5.2.   If the measured value of CO2 or electric energy consumption exceeds the manufacturer's declared CO2 or electric energy consumption value by more than 4 %, then another test is run on the same vehicle.

When the average of the two test results does not exceed the manufacturer's declared value by more than 4 %, then the value declared by the manufacturer is taken as the type approval value.

5.5.3.   If the average still exceeds the declared value by more than 4 %, a final test is run on the same vehicle. The average of the three test results is taken as the type approval value.

6.   MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE APPROVED TYPE

Every modification of the approved type shall be notified to the administrative department which approved the type. The department may then either:

6.1.1.   Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect on the values of CO2 and fuel consumption or electric energy consumption and that, in this case, the original approval will be valid for the modified vehicle type; or

6.1.2.   Require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests according to conditions in paragraph 7 of this Regulation.

6.2.   Confirmation or extension of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.3 to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation.

6.3.   The competent authority which grants the extension of the approval shall assign a series number for such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this Regulation.

7.   CONDITIONS OF EXTENSION OF THE TYPE APPROVAL FOR VEHICLE TYPE

7.1.   Vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only, except vehicles equipped with a periodically regenerating emission control system

The type approval can be extended to vehicles from the same type or from a different type differing with regard to the following characteristics of Annex 4 if the CO2 emissions measured by the technical service do not exceed by more than 4 per cent the type approved value:

7.1.1.   Mass.

7.1.2.   Maximum authorised mass.

7.1.3.   Type of bodywork: saloon, estate, coupé.

7.1.4.   Overall gear ratios.

7.1.5.   Engine equipment and accessories.

7.2.   Vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only and equipped with a periodically regenerating emission control system

The type approval can be extended to vehicles from the same type or from a different type, differing with regard to the characteristics of Annex 4, given in paragraphs 7.1.1 to 7.1.5 above, but not exceeding the family characteristics of Annex 10, if the CO2 emissions measured by the technical service do not exceed by more than 4 % the type approved value, and where the same Ki factor is applicable.

The type approval can be extended also to vehicles from the same type, but with a different Ki factor, if the corrected CO2 value measured by the technical service does not exceed by more than 4 per cent the type approved value.

7.3.   Vehicles powered by an electric power train only

Extensions may be granted after agreement with the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.

7.4.   Vehicles powered by a hybrid electric power train

The type approval can be extended to vehicles from the same type or from a different type differing with regard to the following characteristics of Annex 4 if the CO2 emissions and the electric energy consumption measured by the technical service do not exceed by more than 4 per cent the type approved value:

7.4.1.   Mass.

7.4.2.   Maximum authorised mass.

7.4.3.   Type of bodywork: saloon, estate, coupé.

7.4.4.   With respect to a change in any other characteristic extensions may be granted after agreement with the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.

8.   SPECIAL PROVISIONS

In the future, vehicles with special energy efficient technologies may be offered which could be submitted to complementary testing programmes. These would be specified at a later stage which can be claimed by the manufacturer in order to demonstrate the advantages of the solution.

9.   CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

9.1.   Vehicles approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved vehicle.

9.2.   So as to verify that the conditions set out in paragraph 9.1 are complied with, appropriate production checks shall be carried out.

9.3.   Vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only

As a general rule, measures to ensure the conformity of production with regard to CO2 emissions from vehicles are checked on the basis of the description in the type approval certificate conforming to the model in Annex 4 of this Regulation.

The control of production conformity is based on an assessment made by the competent authority of the manufacturer's auditing procedure in order to ensure conformity of the vehicle type with respect to the emission of CO2.

If the authority is not satisfied with the standard of the manufacturer's auditing procedure, they may require that verification tests be carried out on vehicles in production.

If a measurement of the emissions of CO2 must be carried out on a vehicle type that has had one or several extensions, the tests will be carried out on the vehicle(s) available at the time of the test (vehicle(s) described in the first document or in subsequent extensions).

Conformity of the vehicle for the CO2 test.

9.3.1.1.1.1.   Three vehicles are randomly taken in the series and are tested according to the procedure as described in Annex 6.

9.3.1.1.1.2.   If the authority is satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer, the tests are carried out according to paragraph 9.3.2.

If the authority is not satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer, the tests are carried out according to paragraph 9.3.3.

9.3.1.1.1.3.   The production of a series is regarded as conforming or non-conforming, on the basis of tests on the three sampled vehicles, once a pass or fail decision is reached for CO2, according to the test criteria applied in the appropriate table.

If no pass or fail decision is reached for CO2, a test is carried out on an additional vehicle (see figure 1).

Figure 1

Image

9.3.1.1.1.4.   In the case of periodically regenerating systems as defined in paragraph 2.16, the results shall be multiplied by the factor Ki obtained by the procedure specified in Annex 10 at the time when type approval was granted.

At the request of the manufacturer, testing may be carried out immediately after a regeneration has been completed.

Notwithstanding the requirements of Annex 6, the tests will be carried out on vehicles which have not travelled any distance.

9.3.1.1.2.1.   However, at the request of the manufacturer, the tests will be carried out on vehicles which have been run-in a maximum of 15 000 km.

In this case, the running-in procedure will be conducted by the manufacturer who shall undertake not to make any adjustments to those vehicles.

9.3.1.1.2.2.   If the manufacturer asks to conduct a running-in procedure (‘x’ km, where x ≤ 15 000 km), it may be carried out as follows:

The emissions of CO2 will be measured at zero and at ‘x’ km on the first tested vehicle (which can be the type approval vehicle);

The evolution coefficient (EC) of the emissions between zero and ‘x’ km will be calculated as follows:

Formula

The value of EC may be less than 1.

The following vehicles will not be subjected to the running-in procedure, but their zero km emissions will be modified by the evolution coefficient, EC.

In this case, the values to be taken will be:

The value at ‘x’ km for the first vehicle;

The values at zero km multiplied by the evolution coefficient for the following vehicles.

9.3.1.1.2.3.   As an alternative to this procedure, the car manufacturer can use a fixed evolution coefficient, EC, of 0,92 and multiply all values of CO2 measured at zero km by this factor.

9.3.1.1.2.4.   The reference fuels described in Annex 9 of Regulation No 83 shall be used for this test.

Conformity of production when manufacturer's statistical data is available.

9.3.2.1.   The following sections describe the procedure to be used to verify the CO2 conformity of production requirements when the manufacturer's production standard deviation is satisfactory.

9.3.2.2.   With a minimum sample size of three the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40 % of the production defective is 0,95 (producer's risk = 5 %) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 % of the production defective is 0,1 (consumer's risk = 10 %).

9.3.2.3.   The following procedure is used (see figure 1):

Let L be the natural logarithm of the CO2 type approval value:

xi

=

the natural logarithm of the measurement for the i-th vehicle of the sample;

s

=

an estimate of the production standard deviation (after taking the natural logarithm of the measurements);

n

=

the current sample number.

9.3.2.4.   Compute for the sample, the test statistic quantifying the sum of the standardised deviations to the limit and defined as:

Formula

Then:

9.3.2.5.1.   if the test statistic is greater than the pass decision number for the sample given in Table 1, a pass decision is reached;

9.3.2.5.2.   if the test statistic is less than the fail decision number for the sample size given in Table 1, a fail decision is reached;

9.3.2.5.3.   otherwise, an additional vehicle is tested according to Annex 6 and the procedure is applied to the sample with one unit more.

Table 1

Sample size

(cumulative number of vehicles tested)

Pass Decision No

Fail Decision No

(a)

(b)

(c)

3

3,327

–4,724

4

3,261

–4,790

5

3,195

–4,856

6

3,129

–4,922

7

3,063

–4,988

8

2,997

–5,054

9

2,931

–5,120

10

2,865

–5,185

11

2,799

–5,251

12

2,733

–5,317

13

2,667

–5,383

14

2,601

–5,449

15

2,535

–5,515

16

2,469

–5,581

17

2,403

–5,647

18

2,337

–5,713

19

2,271

–5,779

20

2,205

–5,845

21

2,139

–5,911

22

2,073

–5,977

23

2,007

–6,043

24

1,941

–6,109

25

1,875

–6,175

26

1,809

–6,241

27

1,743

–6,307

28

1,677

–6,373

29

1,611

–6,439

30

1,545

–6,505

31

1,479

–6,571

32

–2,112

–2,112

Conformity of production when manufacturer's statistical data is unsatisfactory or unavailable.

9.3.3.1.   The following sections describe the procedure to be used to verify the CO2 conformity of production requirements when the manufacturer's evidence of production standard deviation is either unsatisfactory or unavailable.

9.3.3.2.   With a minimum sample size of three the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40 % of the production defective is 0,95 (producer's risk = 5 %) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 % of the production defective is 0,1 (consumer's risk = 10 %).

9.3.3.3.   The measurement of CO2 is considered to be log normally distributed and should first be transformed by taking the natural logarithms. Let mo and m denote the minimum and maximum sample sizes respectively (mo = 3 and m = 32) and let n denote the current sample number.

9.3.3.4.   If the natural logarithms of the measurements in the series are x1, x2, …, xj and L is the natural logarithm of the CO2 type approval value, then define:

Formula

Formula

Formula

Table 2 shows values of the pass (An) and fail (Bn) decision numbers against current sample number. The test statistic is the ratio Formula and shall be used to determine whether the series has passed or failed as follows:

for mo ≤ n ≤ m:

9.3.3.5.1.   pass the series if Formula;

9.3.3.5.2.   fail the series if Formula;

9.3.3.5.3.   take another measurement if Formula.

Table 2

Sample size

(cumulative number of vehicles tested)

n

Pass Decision No

An

Fail Decision No

Bn

(a)

(b)

(c)

3

–0,80380

16,64743

4

–0,76339

7,68627

5

–0,72982

4,67136

6

–0,69962

3,25573

7

–0,67129

2,45431

8

–0,64406

1,94369

9

–0,61750

1,59105

10

–0,59135

1,33295

11

–0,56542

1,13566

12

–0,53960

0,97970

13

–0,51379

0,85307

14

–0,48791

0,74801

15

–0,46191

0,65928

16

–0,43573

0,58321

17

–0,40933

0,51718

18

–0,38266

0,45922

19

–0,35570

0,40788

20

–0,32840

0,36203

21

–0,30072

0,32078

22

–0,27263

0,28343

23

–0,24410

0,24943

24

–0,21509

0,21831

25

–0,18557

0,18970

26

–0,15550

0,16328

27

–0,12483

0,13880

28

–0,09354

0,11603

29

–0,06159

0,09480

30

–0,02892

0,07493

31

0,00449

0,05629

32

0,03876

0,03876

9.3.3.6.   Remarks

The following recursive formulae are useful for computing successive values of the test statistic:

Formula

Formula

Formula

9.4.   Vehicles powered by an electric power train only

As a general rule, measures to ensure the conformity of production with regard to electric energy consumption is checked on the basis of the description in the type approval certificate set out in Annex 4 to this Regulation.

The holder of the approval shall, in particular:

9.4.1.1.   Ensure the existence of procedures for the effective control of production quality;

9.4.1.2.   Have access to the equipment necessary for checking conformity with each approved type;

9.4.1.3.   Ensure that the data concerning the test result are recorded and that the annexed documents are available during a period to be agreed with the administrative service;

9.4.1.4.   Analyse the results of each type of test so as to monitor and ensure the consistency of the characteristics of the product, taking into account the variations admissible in industrial manufacture;

9.4.1.5.   Make sure that for each type of vehicle tests prescribed in Annex 7 to this Regulation are carried out; notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 2.3.1.6 of Annex 7, at the request of the manufacturer, the tests will be carried out on vehicles which have not travelled any distance;

9.4.1.6.   Make sure that any collections of samples or test pieces demonstrating non-conformity with the type test under consideration is followed by a subsequent sampling and a further test. All necessary steps shall be taken to re-establish the conformity of production.

The competent authorities issuing the approval may verify at any time the methods applied in each production unit.

9.4.2.1.   In every inspection, the records of tests and production monitoring shall be communicated to the visiting inspector.

9.4.2.2.   The inspector may select at random the samples to be tested in the manufacturer's laboratory. The minimum number of samples may be determined on the basis of the results of the manufacturer's own checks.

9.4.2.3.   When the quality standard does not seem satisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the validity of the tests conducted under paragraph 9.4.2.2, the inspector shall collect samples to be sent to the technical service which carried out the approval tests.

9.4.2.4.   The competent authorities may carry out all the tests prescribed in this Regulation.

9.5.   Vehicles powered by a hybrid electric power train

As a general rule, measures to ensure the conformity of production with regard to CO2 emissions and electric energy consumption from hybrid electric vehicles is checked on the basis of the description in the type approval certificate conforming to the model in Annex 4 of this Regulation.

The control of production conformity is based on an assessment made by the competent authority of the manufacturer's auditing procedure in order to ensure conformity of the vehicle type with respect to the emission of CO2 and the electric energy consumption.

If the authority is not satisfied with the standard of the manufacturer's auditing procedure, they may require that verification tests be carried out on vehicles in production.

Conformity for CO2 emissions is checked using the statistical procedures described in paragraphs 9.3.1 to 9.3.3. Vehicles are tested according to the procedure described in Annex 8 to this Regulation.

9.6.   Actions to be taken in case of non-conformity of production

If, during inspections, non-conformity is observed, the competent authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish conformity of production as soon as possible.

10.   PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

10.1.   The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 9.1 are not complied with.

10.2.   If a Contracting Party to the 1958 Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation, by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 4 of this Regulation.

11.   PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED

If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this Regulation.

12.   NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS

The Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for conducting approval tests and the administrative departments which grant approval and to which, forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.


(1)  As defined in Annex 7 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3) (TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.1/Amend.2).

(2)  1 for Germany, 2 for France, 3 for Italy, 4 for the Netherlands, 5 for Sweden, 6 for Belgium, 7 for Hungary, 8 for the Czech Republic, 9 for Spain, 10 for Serbia and Montenegro, 11 for the United Kingdom, 12 for Austria, 13 for Luxembourg, 14 for Switzerland, 15 (vacant), 16 for Norway, 17 for Finland, 18 for Denmark, 19 for Romania, 20 for Poland, 21 for Portugal, 22 for the Russian Federation, 23 for Greece, 24 for Ireland, 25 for Croatia, 26 for Slovenia, 27 for Slovakia, 28 for Belarus, 29 for Estonia, 30 (vacant), 31 for Bosnia and Herzegovina, 32 for Latvia, 33 (vacant), 34 for Bulgaria, 35 (vacant), 36 for Lithuania, 37 for Turkey, 38 (vacant), 39 for Azerbaijan, 40 for The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 41 (vacant), 42 for the European Community (Approvals are granted by its Member States using their respective ECE symbol), 43 for Japan, 44 (vacant), 45 for Australia, 46 for Ukraine, 47 for South Africa, 48 for New Zealand, 49 for Cyprus, 50 for Malta and 51 for the Republic of Korea. Subsequent numbers shall be assigned to other countries in the chronological order in which they ratify or accede to the Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions, and the numbers thus assigned shall be communicated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement.

(3)  Mean value of G20 and G23 reference fuels at 15 °C.


ANNEX 1

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE POWERED BY AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE ONLY AND INFORMATION CONCERNING THE CONDUCT OF TESTS

The following information, when applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and shall include a summary.

If there are drawings, they shall be to an appropriate scale and show sufficient detail. They shall be presented in A4 format or folded to that format. In the case of microprocessor controlled functions, appropriate operating information shall be supplied.

1.   GENERAL

1.1.   Make (name of manufacturer): …

1.2.   Type and commercial description (mention any variants): …

Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle: …

1.3.1.   Location of that mark: …

1.4.   Category of vehicle: …

1.5.   Name and address of manufacturer: …

1.6.   Name and address of manufacturer's authorised representative where appropriate: …

2.   GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE

2.1.   Photographs and/or drawings of a representative vehicle: …

2.2.   Powered axles (number, position, interconnection): …

3.   MASSES (kilograms) (refer to drawing where applicable)

3.1.   Mass of the vehicle with bodywork in running order, or mass of the chassis with cab if the manufacturer does not fit the bodywork (including coolant, oils, fuel, tools, spare wheel and driver): …

3.2.   Technically permissible maximum laden mass as stated by the manufacturer: …

4.   DESCRIPTION OF POWER TRAIN AND POWER TRAIN COMPONENTS

4.1.   Internal combustion engine

4.1.1.   Engine manufacturer: …

Manufacturer's engine code (as marked on the engine, or other means of identification): …

4.1.2.1.   Working principle: positive-ignition/compression-ignition, four-stroke/two-stroke (1)

Number, arrangement and firing order of cylinders:

4.1.2.2.1.   Bore (2): … mm

4.1.2.2.2.   Stroke (2): … mm

4.1.2.3.   Engine capacity (3): … cm3

4.1.2.4.   Volumetric compression ratio (4): …

4.1.2.5.   Drawings of combustion chamber and piston crown: …

4.1.2.6.   Idle speed (4): …

4.1.2.7.   Carbon monoxide content by volume in the exhaust gas with the engine idling: … % (according to the manufacturer's specifications) (4) …

4.1.2.8.   Maximum net power: … kW at min–1

Fuel: petrol/unleaded petrol/diesel oil/LPG/NG (1)

4.1.3.1.   Research octane number (RON): …

Fuel feed

By carburettor(s): yes/no (1)

4.1.4.1.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.1.2.   Type(s): …

4.1.4.1.3.   Number fitted: …

Adjustments (4):

4.1.4.1.4.1.   Jets: …

4.1.4.1.4.2.   Venturis: …

4.1.4.1.4.3.   Float-chamber level: …

4.1.4.1.4.4.   Mass of float: …

4.1.4.1.4.5.   Float needle: …

Cold start system: manual/automatic (1)

4.1.4.1.5.1.   Operating principle: …

4.1.4.1.5.2.   Operating limits/settings (1)  (4): …

By fuel injection (compression-ignition only): yes/no (1)

4.1.4.2.1.   System description: …

4.1.4.2.2.   Working principle: direct-injection/pre-chamber/swirl chamber (1)

Injection pump

4.1.4.2.3.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.2.3.2.   Type(s): …

4.1.4.2.3.3.   Maximum fuel delivery (1)  (4): … mm3/stroke or cycle at a pump speed of (1)  (4): … min–1 or characteristic diagram: …

4.1.4.2.3.4.   Injection timing (4): …

4.1.4.2.3.5.   Injection advance curve (4): …

4.1.4.2.3.6.   Calibration procedure: test bench/engine (1)

Governor

4.1.4.2.4.1.   Type: …

Cut-off point:

4.1.4.2.4.2.1.   Cut-off point under load: … min–1

4.1.4.2.4.2.2.   Cut-off point without load: … min–1

4.1.4.2.4.3.   Idling speed: … min–1

Injector(s):

4.1.4.2.5.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.2.5.2.   Type(s): …

4.1.4.2.5.3.   Opening pressure (4): … kPa or characteristic diagram: …

Cold start system

4.1.4.2.6.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.2.6.2.   Type(s): …

4.1.4.2.6.3.   Description: …

Auxiliary starting aid

4.1.4.2.7.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.2.7.2.   Type(s): …

4.1.4.2.7.3.   Description: …

By fuel injection (positive-ignition only): yes/no (1)

4.1.4.3.1.   System description:

4.1.4.3.2.   Working principle (1): intake manifold (single/multi-point)/direct injection/other (specify)

Control unit – type (or No): …

information to be given in the case of continuous injection; in the case of other systems, equivalent details

Fuel regulator – type: …

Air-flow sensor – type: …

Fuel distributor – type: …

Pressure regulator – type: …

Micro-switch – type: …

Idle adjusting screw – type: …

Throttle housing – type: …

Water temperature sensor – type: …

Air temperature sensor – type: …

Air temperature switch – type: …

Electromagnetic interference protection: …

Description and/or drawing: …

4.1.4.3.3.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.3.4.   Type(s): …

4.1.4.3.5.   Injectors: Opening pressure (4): … kPa or characteristic diagram (4): …

4.1.4.3.6.   Injection timing: …

Cold start system: …

4.1.4.3.7.1.   Operating principle(s): …

4.1.4.3.7.2.   Operating limits/settings (1)  (4): …

Feed pump

4.1.4.4.1.   Pressure (4): … kPa or characteristic diagram: …

By LPG fuelling system: yes/no (1)

4.1.4.5.1.   Approval number according to Regulation No 67 and documentation: …

Electronic Engine Management Control Unit for LPG-fuelling:

4.1.4.5.2.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.5.2.2.   Type: …

4.1.4.5.2.3.   Emission related adjustment possibilities: …

Further documentation:

4.1.4.5.3.1.   Description of the safeguarding of the catalyst at switch-over from petrol to LPG or back: …

4.1.4.5.3.2.   System lay-out (electrical connections, vacuum connections compensation hoses, etc): …

4.1.4.5.3.3.   Drawing of the symbol: …

By NG fuelling system: yes/no (1)

4.1.4.6.1.   Approval number according to Regulation No 67: …

Electronic Engine Management Control Unit for NG-fuelling:

4.1.4.6.2.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.4.6.2.2.   Type: …

4.1.4.6.2.3.   Emission related adjustment possibilities: …

Further documentation:

4.1.4.6.3.1.   Description of the safeguarding of the catalyst at switch-over from petrol to NG or back: …

4.1.4.6.3.2.   System lay-out (electrical connections, vacuum connections compensation hoses, etc.): …

4.1.4.6.3.3.   Drawing of the symbol: …

Ignition

4.1.5.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.5.2.   Type(s): …

4.1.5.3.   Working principle: …

4.1.5.4.   Ignition advance curve (4): …

4.1.5.5.   Static ignition timing (4): … degrees before TDC

4.1.5.6.   Contact-point gap (4): …

4.1.5.7.   Dwell-angle (4): …

Spark plugs

4.1.5.8.1.   Make: …

4.1.5.8.2.   Type: …

4.1.5.8.3.   Spark plug gap setting: … mm

Ignition coil

4.1.5.9.1.   Make: …

4.1.5.9.2.   Type: …

Ignition condenser

4.1.5.10.1.   Make: …

4.1.5.10.2.   Type: …

4.1.6.   Cooling system: liquid/air (1)

Intake system:

Pressure charger: yes/no (1)

4.1.7.1.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.7.1.2.   Type(s): …

4.1.7.1.3.   Description of the system (maximum charge pressure: … kPa, waste-gate)

4.1.7.2.   Inter-cooler: yes/no (1)

Description and drawings of inlet pipes and their accessories (plenum chamber, heating device, additional air intakes, etc.): …

4.1.7.3.1.   Intake manifold description (drawings and/or photographs): …

Air filter, drawings: …, or

4.1.7.3.2.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.7.3.2.2.   Type(s): …

Intake silencer, drawings: …, or

4.1.7.3.3.1.   Make(s): …

4.1.7.3.3.2.   Type(s): …

Exhaust system

4.1.8.1.   Description and drawings of the exhaust system: …

Valve timing or equivalent data:

4.1.9.1.   Maximum lift of valves, angles of opening and closing, or timing details of alternative distribution systems, in relation to dead centres: …

4.1.9.2.   Reference and/or setting ranges (1): …

Lubricant used:

4.1.10.1.   Make: …

4.1.10.2.   Type: …

Measures taken against air pollution:

4.1.11.1.   Device for recycling crankcase gases (description and drawings): …

Additional pollution control devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading:

Catalytic converter: yes/no (1)

4.1.11.2.1.1.   Number of catalytic converters and elements: …

4.1.11.2.1.2.   Dimensions and shape of the catalytic converter(s) (volume, …): …

4.1.11.2.1.3.   Type of catalytic action: …

4.1.11.2.1.4.   Total charge of precious metal: …

4.1.11.2.1.5.   Relative concentration: …

4.1.11.2.1.6.   Substrate (structure and material): …

4.1.11.2.1.7.   Cell density: …

4.1.11.2.1.8.   Type of casing for catalytic converter(s): …

4.1.11.2.1.9.   Positioning of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distances in the exhaust system): …

Regeneration systems/method of exhaust after-treatment systems, description:

4.1.11.2.1.10.1.   The number of Type I operating cycles, or equivalent engine test bench cycles, between two cycles where regenerative phases occur under the conditions equivalent to Type I test (Distance ‘D’ in figure 10/1 in Annex 10): …

4.1.11.2.1.10.2.   Description of method employed to determine the number of cycles between two cycles where regenerative phases occur: …

4.1.11.2.1.10.3.   Parameters to determine the level of loading required before regeneration occurs (i.e. temperature, pressure etc.): …

4.1.11.2.1.10.4.   Description of method used to load system in the test procedure described in paragraph 3.1. of Annex 10: …

Oxygen sensor: type

4.1.11.2.1.11.1.   Location of oxygen sensor: …

4.1.11.2.1.11.2.   Control range of oxygen sensor: …

Air injection: yes/no (1)

4.1.11.2.2.1.   Type (pulse air, air pump, …): …

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR): yes/no (1)

4.1.11.2.3.1.   Characteristics (flow, …): …

4.1.11.2.4.   Evaporative emission control system.

Complete detailed description of the devices and their state of tune: …

Drawing of the evaporative control system: …

Drawing of the carbon canister: …

Drawing of the fuel tank with indication of capacity and material: …

Particulate trap: yes/no (1)

4.1.11.2.5.1.   Dimensions and shape of the particulate trap (capacity): …

4.1.11.2.5.2.   Type of particulate trap and design: …

4.1.11.2.5.3.   Location of the particulate trap (reference distances in the exhaust system): …

Regeneration system/method. Description and drawing: …

4.1.11.2.5.4.1.   The number of Type I operating cycles, or equivalent engine test bench cycle, between two cycles where regeneration phases occur under the conditions equivalent to Type I test (Distance ‘D’ in figure 10/1 in Annex 10): …

4.1.11.2.5.4.2.   Description of method employed to determine the number of cycles between two cycles where regenerative phases occur: …

4.1.11.2.5.4.3.   Parameters to determine the level of loading required before regeneration occurs (i.e. temperature, pressure, etc.): …

4.1.11.2.5.4.4.   Description of method used to load system in the test procedure described in paragraph 3.1. of Annex 10: …

4.1.11.2.6.   Other systems (description and working principle): …

4.2.   Power train control unit

4.2.1.   Make: …

4.2.2.   Type: …

4.2.3.   Identification number: …

4.3.   Transmission

Clutch (type): …

4.3.1.1.   Maximum torque conversion: …

Gearbox: …

4.3.2.1.   Type: …

4.3.2.2.   Location relative to the engine: …

4.3.2.3.   Method of control: …

4.3.3.   Gear ratios:

 

Gearbox ratios

Final drive ratios

Total ratios

Maximum for CVT (5)

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

4, 5, others

 

 

 

Minimum for CVT (5)

 

 

 

Reverse

 

 

 

5.   SUSPENSION

5.1.   Tyres and wheels

Tyre/wheel combination(s) (for tyres indicate size designation, minimum load-capacity index, minimum speed category symbol; for wheels, indicate rim size(s) and off-set(s):

Axles

5.1.1.1.1.   Axle 1: …

5.1.1.1.2.   Axle 2: …

5.1.1.1.3.   Axle 3: …

5.1.1.1.4.   Axle 4: etc. …

Upper and lower limit of rolling circumference:

Axles

5.1.2.1.1.   Axle 1: …

5.1.2.1.2.   Axle 2: …

5.1.2.1.3.   Axle 3: …

5.1.2.1.4.   Axle 4: etc. …

5.1.3.   Tyre pressure(s) as recommended by the manufacturer: … kPa

6.   BODYWORK

Seats: …

6.1.1.   Number of seats: …


(1)  Strike out what does not apply.

(2)  This value must be rounded to the nearest tenth of a millimetre.

(3)  This value must be calculated with π = 3,1416 and rounded to the nearest cm3.

(4)  Specify the tolerance.

(5)  CVT — Continuously variable transmission


ANNEX 2

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE POWERED BY AN ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN ONLY AND INFORMATION CONCERNING THE CONDUCT OF TESTS (1)

The following information, when applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and shall include a summary.

If there are drawings, they shall be to an appropriate scale and show sufficient detail. They shall be presented in A4 format or folded to that format. In the case of microprocessor controlled functions, appropriate operating information shall be supplied.

1.   GENERAL

1.1.   Make (name of manufacturer): …

1.2.   Type and commercial description (mention any variants): …

Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle: …

1.3.1.   Location of that mark: …

1.4.   Category of vehicle: …

1.5.   Name and address of manufacturer: …

1.6.   Name and address of manufacturer's authorised representative where appropriate: …

2.   GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE

2.1.   Photographs and/or drawings of a representative vehicle: …

2.2.   Powered axles (number, position, interconnection): …

3.   MASSES (kilograms) (refer to drawing where applicable)

3.1.   Mass of the vehicle with bodywork in running order, or mass of the chassis with cab if the manufacturer does not fit the bodywork (including coolant, oils, fuel, tools, spare wheel and driver): …

3.2.   Technically permissible maximum laden mass as stated by the manufacturer: …

4.   DESCRIPTION OF THE POWER TRAIN AND POWER TRAIN COMPONENTS

4.1.   General description of electric power train

4.1.1.   Make: …

4.1.2.   Type: …

4.1.3.   Use (2): Monomotor/multimotors (number): …

4.1.4.   Transmission arrangement: parallel/transaxial/others, to precise: …

4.1.5.   Test voltage: … V

4.1.6.   Motor nominal speed: … min–1

4.1.7.   Motor maximum speed: … min–1

or by default:

reducer outlet shaft/gear box speed (specify gear engaged): … min–1

4.1.8.   Maximum power speed (3): … min–1

4.1.9.   Maximum power: … kW

4.1.10.   Maximum thirty minutes power: … kW

4.1.11.   Flexible range (where P ≥ 90 % of maximum power):

speed at the beginning of range: … min–1

speed at the end of range: … min–1

4.2.   Traction battery

4.2.1.   Trade name and mark of the battery: …

4.2.2.   Kind of electro-chemical couple: …

4.2.3.   Nominal voltage: … V

4.2.4.   Battery maximum thirty minutes power (constant power discharge): … kW

Battery performance in 2 h discharge (constant power or constant current) (2):

4.2.5.1.   Battery energy: … kWh

4.2.5.2.   Battery capacity: … Ah in 2 h

4.2.5.3.   End of discharge voltage value: …

4.2.6.   Indication of the end of the discharge that leads to a compulsory stop of the vehicle (4): …

4.2.7.   Battery mass: … kg

4.3.   Electric Motor

Working principle:

4.3.1.1.   direct current/alternating current (2)/number of phases: …

4.3.1.2.   separate excitation/series/compound (2)

4.3.1.3.   synchronous/asynchronous (2)

4.3.1.4.   coiled rotor/with permanent magnets/with housing (2)

4.3.1.5.   number of poles of the motor: …

4.3.2.   Inertia mass: …

4.4.   Power controller

4.4.1.   Make: …

4.4.2.   Type: …

4.4.3.   Control principle: vectorial/open loop/closed/other (to be specified) (2): …

4.4.4.   Maximum effective current supplied to the motor (3): … A during … seconds

4.4.5.   Voltage range use: … V to… V

4.5.   Cooling system

motor

:

liquid/air (2)

controller

:

liquid/air (2)

Liquid-cooling equipment characteristics:

4.5.1.1.   Nature of the liquid… circulating pumps: yes/no (2)

4.5.1.2.   Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) of the pump: …

4.5.1.3.   Thermostat: setting: …

4.5.1.4.   Radiator: drawing(s) or make(s) and type(s): …

4.5.1.5.   Relief valve: pressure setting: …

4.5.1.6.   Fan: characteristics or make(s) and type(s): …

4.5.1.7.   Fan duct: …

Air-cooling equipment characteristics

4.5.2.1.   Blower: characteristics or make(s) and type(s): …

4.5.2.2.   Standard air ducting: …

4.5.2.3.   Temperature regulating system: yes/no (2)

4.5.2.4.   Brief description: …

4.5.2.5.   Air filter: … make(s): … type(s): …

Temperatures admitted by the manufacturer

maximum temperature

Motor outlet:

… °C

controller inlet:

… °C

at motor reference point(s):

… °C

at controller reference point(s):

… °C

4.6.   Insulating category: …

4.7.   International protection (IP)-code: …

Lubrication system principle (2):

Bearings:

friction/ball

 

Lubricant:

grease/oil

 

Seal:

yes/no

 

Circulation:

with/without

4.9.   Description of the transmission

4.9.1.   Drive wheels: front/rear/4 × 4 (2)

4.9.2.   Type of transmission: manual/automatic (2)

Number of gear ratios: …

Gear

Wheel speed

Gear ratio

Motor speed

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

Reverse

 

 

 

minimum CVT (continuous variable transmission): …

maximum CVT: …

4.9.4.   Recommendations for changing the gears

1 → 2: …

2 → 1: …

2 → 3: …

3 → 2: …

3 → 4: …

4 → 3: …

4 → 5: …

5 → 4: …

overdrive in: …

overdrive out: …

5.   CHARGER

5.1.   Charger: on board/external (2)

In case of an external unit, define the charger (trademark, model): …

5.2.   Description of the normal profile of charge: …

Specification of mains:

5.3.1.   Type of mains: single phase/three phase (2)

5.3.2.   Voltage: …

5.4.   Rest period recommended between the end of the discharge and the start of the charge: …

5.5.   Theoretical duration of a complete charge: …

6.   SUSPENSION

6.1.   Tyres and wheels

Tyre/wheel combination(s) (for tyres indicate size designation, minimum load-capacity index, minimum speed category symbol; for wheels, indicate rim size(s) and off-set(s): …

Axles

6.1.1.1.1.   Axle 1: …

6.1.1.1.2.   Axle 2: …

6.1.1.1.3.   Axle 3: …

6.1.1.1.4.   Axle 4: etc. …

Upper and lower limit of rolling circumference: …

Axles

6.1.2.1.1.   Axle 1: …

6.1.2.1.2.   Axle 2: …

6.1.2.1.3.   Axle 3: …

6.1.2.1.4.   Axle 4: etc. …

6.1.3.   Tyre pressure(s) as recommended by the manufacturer: … kPa

7.   BODYWORK

Seats: …

7.1.1.   Number of seats: …

8.   INERTIA MASS

8.1.   Equivalent inertia mass of complete front axle: …

8.2.   Equivalent inertia mass of complete rear axle: …


(1)  For non-conventional motors or systems, the manufacturer will supply data equivalent to those requested hereafter.

(2)  Strike out what does not apply.

(3)  Specify tolerances.

(4)  If applicable.


ANNEX 3

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE POWERED BY A HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN AND INFORMATION CONCERNING THE CONDUCT OF TESTS

The following information, when applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and shall include a summary.

If there are drawings, they shall be to an appropriate scale and show sufficient detail. They shall be presented in A4 format or folded to that format. In the case of microprocessor controlled functions, appropriate operating information shall be supplied.

1.   GENERAL

1.1.   Make (name of manufacturer): …

1.2.   Type and commercial description (mention any variants): …

Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle: …

1.3.1.   Location of that mark: …

1.4.   Category of vehicle: …

1.5.   Name and address of manufacturer: …

1.6.   Name and address of manufacturer's authorised representative where appropriate: …

2.   GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE

2.1.   Photographs and/or drawings of a representative vehicle: …

2.2.   Powered axles (number, position, interconnection): …

3.   MASSES (kilograms) (refer to drawing where applicable)

3.1.   Mass of the vehicle with bodywork in running order, or mass of the chassis with cab if the manufacturer does not fit the bodywork (including coolant, oils, fuel, tools, spare wheel and driver): …

3.2.   Technically permissible maximum laden mass as stated by the manufacturer: …

4.   DESCRIPTION OF POWER TRAIN AND POWER TRAIN COMPONENTS

4.1.   Description of the hybrid electric vehicle

4.1.1.   Category of hybrid electric vehicle: off vehicle charging/not off vehicle charging (1)

Operating mode switch:

with/without (1)

Selectable modes:

Pure electric:

yes/no (1)

Pure fuel consuming:

yes/no (1)

Hybrid modes:

yes/no (1) (if yes, short description)

General description of hybrid electric power train

4.1.3.1.   Drawing of the hybrid power train system layout (engine/motor/transmission combination (1)): …

4.1.3.2.   Description of the general hybrid power train working principle: …

4.1.4.   Vehicle electric range (according Annex 9): … km

4.1.5.   Manufacturer's recommendation for preconditioning: …

4.2.   Internal combustion engine

4.2.1.   Engine manufacturer: …

Manufacturer's engine code (as marked on the engine, or other means of identification): …

4.2.2.1.   Working principle: positive-ignition/compression-ignition, four-stroke/two-stroke (1)

Number, arrangement and firing order of cylinders: …

4.2.2.2.1.   Bore (2): … mm

4.2.2.2.2.   Stroke (2): … mm

4.2.2.3.   Engine capacity (3): … cm3

4.2.2.4.   Volumetric compression ratio (4): …

4.2.2.5.   Drawings of combustion chamber and piston crown: …

4.2.2.6.   Idle speed (4): …

4.2.2.7.   Carbon monoxide content by volume in the exhaust gas with the engine idling: … per cent (according to the manufacturer's specifications) (4)

4.2.2.8.   Maximum net power: … kW at … min–1

Fuel: petrol/unleaded petrol/diesel oil/LPG/NG (1)

4.2.3.1.   Research octane number (RON): …

4.2.4.   Fuel feed

By carburettor(s): yes/no (1)

4.2.4.1.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.4.1.2.   Type(s): …

4.2.4.1.3.   Number fitted: …

Adjustments (4)

4.2.4.1.4.1.   Jets: …

4.2.4.1.4.2.   Venturis: …

4.2.4.1.4.3.   Float-chamber level: …

4.2.4.1.4.4.   Mass of float: …

4.2.4.1.4.5.   Float needle: …

Cold start system: manual/automatic (1)

4.2.4.1.5.1.   Operating principle: …

4.2.4.1.5.2.   Operating limits/settings (1)  (4): …

By fuel injection (compression-ignition only): yes/no (1)

4.2.4.2.1.   System description: …

4.2.4.2.2.   Working principle: direct-injection/pre-chamber/swirl chamber (1)

Injection pump

4.2.4.2.3.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.4.2.3.2.   Type(s): …

4.2.4.2.3.3.   Maximum fuel delivery (1)  (4): … mm3/stroke or cycle at a pump speed of (1)  (4): … min–1 or characteristic diagram: …

4.2.4.2.3.4.   Injection timing (4): …

4.2.4.2.3.5.   Injection advance curve (4): …

4.2.4.2.3.6.   Calibration procedure: test bench/engine (1)

Governor

4.2.4.2.4.1.   Type: …

Cut-off point: …

4.2.4.2.4.2.1.   Cut-off point under load: … min–1

4.2.4.2.4.2.2.   Cut-off point without load: … min–1

4.2.4.2.4.3.   Idling speed: … min–1

Injector(s)

4.2.4.2.5.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.4.2.5.2.   Type(s): …

4.2.4.2.5.3.   Opening pressure (4): … kPa or characteristic diagram: …

Cold start system

4.2.4.2.6.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.4.2.6.2.   Type(s): …

4.2.4.2.6.3.   Description: …

Auxiliary starting aid

4.2.4.2.7.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.4.2.7.2.   Type(s): …

4.2.4.2.7.3.   Description: …

By fuel injection (positive-ignition only): yes/no (1)

4.2.4.3.1.   System description: …

4.2.4.3.2.   Working principle (1): intake manifold (single/multi-point)/direct injection/other (specify)

Control unit – type (or No): …

information to be given in the case of continuous injection; in the case of other systems, equivalent details

Fuel regulator – type: …

Air-flow sensor – type: …

Fuel distributor – type: …

Pressure regulator – type: …

Micro-switch – type: …

Idle adjusting screw – type: …

Throttle housing – type: …

Water temperature sensor – type: …

Air temperature sensor – type: …

Air temperature switch – type: …

Electromagnetic interference protection: …

Description and/or drawing: …

4.2.4.3.3.   Make(s): …

4.2.4.3.4.   Type(s): …

4.2.4.3.5.   Injectors: opening pressure (4): … kPa or characteristic diagram (4): …

4.2.4.3.6.   Injection timing: …

Cold start system: …

4.2.4.3.7.1.   Operating principle(s): …

4.2.4.3.7.2.   Operating limits/settings (1)  (4): …

Feed pump

4.2.4.4.1.   Pressure (4): … kPa or characteristic diagram: …

Ignition

4.2.5.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.5.2.   Type(s): …

4.2.5.3.   Working principle: …

4.2.5.4.   Ignition advance curve (4): …

4.2.5.5.   Static ignition timing (4): … degrees before TDC

4.2.5.6.   Contact-point gap (4): …

4.2.5.7.   Dwell-angle (4): …

Spark plugs

4.2.5.8.1.   Make: …

4.2.5.8.2.   Type: …

4.2.5.8.3.   Spark plug gap setting: … mm

Ignition coil

4.2.5.9.1.   Make: …

4.2.5.9.2.   Type: …

Ignition condenser

4.2.5.10.1.   Make: …

4.2.5.10.2.   Type: …

4.2.6.   Cooling system: liquid/air (1)

Intake system:

Pressure charger: yes/no (1)

4.2.7.1.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.7.1.2.   Type(s): …

4.2.7.1.3.   Description of the system (maximum charge pressure: … kPa, waste-gate)

4.2.7.2.   Inter-cooler: yes/no (1)

Description and drawings of inlet pipes and their accessories (plenum chamber, heating device, additional air intakes, etc.): …

4.2.7.3.1.   Intake manifold description (drawings and/or photographs): …

Air filter, drawings: …, or

4.2.7.3.2.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.7.3.2.2.   Type(s): …

Intake silencer, drawings: …, or

4.2.7.3.3.1.   Make(s): …

4.2.7.3.3.2.   Type(s): …

Exhaust system

4.2.8.1.   Description and drawings of the exhaust system: …

Valve timing or equivalent data:

4.2.9.1.   Maximum lift of valves, angles of opening and closing, or timing details of alternative distribution systems, in relation to dead centres: …

4.2.9.2.   Reference and/or setting ranges (1): …

Lubricant used

4.2.10.1.   Make: …

4.2.10.2.   Type: …

Measures taken against air pollution

4.2.11.1.   Device for recycling crankcase gases (description and drawings): …

Additional pollution control devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading: …

Catalytic converter: yes/no (1)

4.2.11.2.1.1.   Number of catalytic converters and elements: …

4.2.11.2.1.2.   Dimensions and shape of the catalytic converter(s) (volume, …): …

4.2.11.2.1.3.   Type of catalytic action: …

4.2.11.2.1.4.   Total charge of precious metal: …

4.2.11.2.1.5.   Relative concentration: …

4.2.11.2.1.6.   Substrate (structure and material): …

4.2.11.2.1.7.   Cell density: …

4.2.11.2.1.8.   Type of casing for catalytic converter(s): …

4.2.11.2.1.9.   Positioning of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distances in the exhaust system): …

Oxygen sensor: type …

4.2.11.2.1.10.1.   Location of oxygen sensor: …

4.2.11.2.1.10.2.   Control range of oxygen sensor: …

Air injection: yes/no (1)

4.2.11.2.2.1.   Type (pulse air, air pump, …): …

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR): yes/no (1)

4.2.11.2.3.1.   Characteristics (flow, …): …

4.2.11.2.4.   Evaporative emission control system.

Complete detailed description of the devices and their state of tune: …

Drawing of the evaporative control system: …

Drawing of the carbon canister: …

Drawing of the fuel tank with indication of capacity and material: …

Particulate trap: yes/no (1)

4.2.11.2.5.1.   Dimensions and shape of the particulate trap (capacity): …

4.2.11.2.5.2.   Type of particulate trap and design: …

4.2.11.2.5.3.   Location of the particulate trap (reference distances in the exhaust system): …

4.2.11.2.6.   Other systems (description and working principle): …

4.3.   Traction battery/energy storage device

Description of the energy storage device: (battery, capacitor, flywheel/generator …): …

4.3.1.1.   Make: …

4.3.1.2.   Type: …

4.3.1.3.   Identification number: …

4.3.1.4.   Kind of electrochemical couple: …

4.3.1.5.   Energy: … (for battery: voltage and capacity Ah in 2 h, for capacitor: J, …)

4.3.1.6.   Charger: on board/external/without (1)

4.4.   Electric machines (describe each type of electric machine separately)

4.4.1.   Make: …

4.4.2.   Type: …

Primary use: traction motor/generator (1)

4.4.3.1.   When used as traction motor: monomotor/multimotors (1) (number): …

4.4.4.   Maximum power: … kW

Working principle:

4.4.5.1.   Direct current/alternating current/number of phases (1): …

4.4.5.2.   separate excitation/series/compound (1)

4.4.5.3.   synchronous/asynchronous (1)

4.5.   Power train control unit

4.5.1.   Make: …

4.5.2.   Type: …

4.5.3.   Identification number: …

4.6.   Power controller

4.6.1.   Make: …

4.6.2.   Type: …

4.6.3.   Identification number: …

4.7.   Transmission

Clutch (type): …

4.7.1.1.   Maximum torque conversion: …

Gearbox: …

4.7.2.1.   Type: …

4.7.2.2.   Location relative to the engine: …

4.7.2.3.   Method of control: …

4.7.3.   Gear ratios:

 

Gearbox ratios

Final drive ratios

Total ratios

Maximum for CVT (5)

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

4, 5, others

 

 

 

Minimum for CVT (5)

 

 

 

Reverse

 

 

 

5.   SUSPENSION

5.1.   Tyres and wheels

Tyre/wheel combination(s) (for tyres indicate size designation, minimum load-capacity index, minimum speed category symbol; for wheels, indicate rim size(s) and off-set(s): …

Axles

5.1.1.1.1.   Axle 1: …

5.1.1.1.2.   Axle 2: …

5.1.1.1.3.   Axle 3: …

5.1.1.1.4.   Axle 4: etc …

Upper and lower limit of rolling circumference: …

Axles

5.1.2.1.1.   Axle 1: …

5.1.2.1.2.   Axle 2: …

5.1.2.1.3.   Axle 3: …

5.1.2.1.4.   Axle 4: etc …

5.1.3.   Tyre pressure(s) as recommended by the manufacturer: … kPa

6.   BODYWORK

Seats: …

6.1.1.   Number of seats: …

7.   INERTIA MASS

7.1.   Equivalent inertia mass of complete front axle: …

7.2.   Equivalent inertia mass of complete rear axle: …


(1)  Strike out what does not apply.

(2)  This value must be rounded to the nearest tenth of a millimetre.

(3)  This value must be calculated with π = 3,1416 and rounded to the nearest cm3.

(4)  Specify the tolerance.

(5)  CVT — Continuously variable transmission.


ANNEX 4

COMMUNICATION

(maximum format: A4 (210 × 297 mm))

Image

 (1)

 

issued by:

Name of administration:


concerning (2):

APPROVAL GRANTED

APPROVAL EXTENDED

APPROVAL REFUSED

APPROVAL WITHDRAWN

PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED

of a vehicle type pursuant to Regulation No 101.

Approval No: …

Extension No: …

1.   Trade name or mark of the vehicle: …

2.   Vehicle type: …

3.   Vehicle category: …

4.   Manufacturer's name and address: …

5.   If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: …

Description of the vehicle: …

6.1.   Mass of the vehicle in running order: …

6.2.   Maximum permitted mass: …

6.3.   Type of body: saloon/estate/coupé (2)

6.4.   Drive: front-wheel/rear-wheel/four-wheel (2)

6.5.   Pure electric vehicle: yes/no (2)

Hybrid electric vehicle: yes/no (2)

6.6.1.   Category of hybrid electric vehicle: off vehicle charging/not off vehicle charging (2)

6.6.2.   Operating mode switch: with/without (2)

6.7.   Internal combustion engine.

6.7.1.   Cylinder capacity: …

6.7.2.   Fuel feed: carburettor/injection (2)

6.7.3.   Fuel recommended by the manufacturer: …

6.7.4.   In the case of LPG/NG (2) the reference fuel used for the test (e.g. G20, G25): …

6.7.5.   Maximum engine power: … kW at: … min–1

6.7.6.   Super-charger: yes/no (2)

6.7.7.   Ignition: compression ignition/positive ignition (mechanical or electronic) (2)

6.8.   Power train (for pure electric vehicle or hybrid electric vehicle)  (2)

6.8.1.   Maximum net power: … kW, at: … to … min–1

6.8.2.   Maximum thirty minutes power: … kW

6.8.3.   Working principle: …

6.9.   Traction battery (for pure electric vehicle or hybrid electric vehicle)

6.9.1.   Nominal voltage: … V

6.9.2.   Capacity (2 h rate): … Ah

6.9.3.   Battery maximum thirty minutes power: … kW

6.9.4.   Charger: on board/external (2)

6.10.   Transmission

6.10.1.   Type of gearbox: manual/automatic/variable transmission (2)

6.10.2.   Number of gears: …

6.10.3.   Overall gear ratios (including tyre tread circumference under load): road speeds (km/h) per 1 000 engine speed (min–1):

First gear: …

Second gear: …

Third gear: …

Fourth gear: …

Fifth gear: …

Overdrive: …

6.10.4.   Final drive ratio: …

6.11.   Tyres

Type: …

Dimensions: …

Rolling circumference under load: …

7.   TEST RESULTS

7.1.   Internal combustion engine vehicle and not externally chargeable (NOVC) hybrid electric vehicle (2)

CO2 mass emissions

7.1.1.1.   Urban conditions: … g/km

7.1.1.2.   Extra-urban conditions: … g/km

7.1.1.3.   Combined: … g/km

Fuel consumption (3)  (4)

7.1.2.1.   Fuel consumption (urban conditions): … l/100 km

7.1.2.2.   Fuel consumption (extra-urban conditions): … l/100 km

7.1.2.3.   Fuel consumption (combined): … l/100 km

7.1.3.   For vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only which are equipped with periodically regenerating systems as defined in paragraph 2.16 of this Regulation, the test results must be multiplied by the factor Ki obtained from Annex 10.

7.2.   Pure electric vehicles (2)

Measurement of electric energy consumption.

7.2.1.1.   Electric energy consumption: … Wh/km

7.2.1.2.   Total time out of tolerance for the conduct of the cycle: … sec

Measurement of range:

7.2.2.1.   Range: … km

7.2.2.2.   Total time out of tolerance for the conduct of the cycle: … sec

7.3.   Externally chargeable (OVC) hybrid electric vehicle

7.3.1.   CO2 mass emission (Condition A, combined (5)): … g/km

7.3.2.   CO2 mass emission (Condition B, combined (5)): … g/km

7.3.3.   CO2 mass emission (weighted, combined (5)): … g/km

7.3.4.   Fuel consumption (Condition A, combined (5)): … l/100 km

7.3.5.   Fuel consumption (Condition B, combined (5)): … l/100 km

7.3.6.   Fuel consumption (weighted, combined (5)): … l/100 km

7.3.7.   Electric energy consumption (Condition A, combined (5)): … Wh/km

7.3.8.   Electric energy consumption (Condition B, combined (5)): … Wh/km

7.3.9.   Electric energy consumption (weighted and combined (5)): … Wh/km

7.3.10.   Electric range: … km

8.   Vehicle submitted for approval on: …

9.   Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: …

10.   Number of report issued by that service: …

11.   Date of report issued by that service: …

12.   Approval granted/extended/refused/withdrawn (2)

13.   Reasons for extension (if applicable): …

14.   Remarks: …

15.   Positioning of approval mark on the vehicle: …

16.   Place: …

17.   Date: …

18.   Signature: …


(1)  Distinguishing number of the country which has granted/extended/refused/withdrawn approval (see approval provisions in this Regulation).

(2)  Strike out what does not apply.

(3)  Repeat for petrol and gaseous fuel in the case of a vehicle that can run either on petrol or on a gaseous fuel.

(4)  For vehicles fuelled with NG the unit l/100 km is replaced by m3/km.

(5)  Measured over the combined cycle, i.e. Part One (urban) and Part Two (extra-urban) together.


ANNEX 5

ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS

MODEL A

(See paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation)

Image

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E4) with regard to the measurement of emissions of CO2 and fuel consumption or to the measurement of electric energy consumption and electric range pursuant to Regulation No 101 and under approval number 002492. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted according to the requirements of Regulation No 101 as amended by in its original version.

MODEL B

(See paragraph 4.5 of this Regulation)

Image

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E4) pursuant to Regulations Nos 101 and 83 (1). The first two digits of the approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No 101 in its original version and Regulation No 83 already included the 02 series of amendments.


(1)  The second number is given merely as an example.


ANNEX 6

METHOD OF MEASURING EMISSIONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND FUEL CONSUMPTION OF VEHICLES POWERED BY AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE ONLY

1.   SPECIFICATION OF THE TEST

1.1.   Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and fuel consumption of vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only shall be determined according to the procedure for the Type I test as defined in Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of the approval of the vehicle.

1.2.   Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and fuel consumption shall be determined separately for the Part One (urban driving) and the Part Two (extra-urban driving) of the specified driving cycle.

In addition to the conditions specified in Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of the approval of the vehicle, the following conditions apply:

1.3.1.   Only the equipment necessary for the operation of the vehicle during the test shall be in use. If there is a manually controlled device for the engine intake air temperature, it shall be in the position prescribed by the manufacturer for the ambient temperature at which the test is performed. In general, the auxiliary devices required for the normal operation of the vehicle shall be in use.

1.3.2.   If the radiator fan is temperature controlled, it shall be in the condition of normal operation on the vehicle. The passenger compartment heating system shall be switched off, as shall any air conditioning system, but such systems compressor shall be functioning normally.

1.3.3.   If a super-charger is fitted, it shall be in the normal operating condition for the test conditions.

1.3.4.   All the lubricants shall be those recommended by the manufacturer of the vehicle and shall be specified in the test report.

1.3.5.   The tyres shall be of a type specified as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer inflated to the pressure recommended for the test load and speeds. The pressures shall be indicated in the test report.

1.4.   Calculation of CO2 and fuel consumption values

The mass emission of CO2, expressed in g/km, shall be calculated from the measurement results using the provisions defined in Appendix 8 to Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of the approval of the vehicle.

1.4.1.1.   For this calculation the density of CO2 shall be QCO2 = 1,964 g/litre.

1.4.2.   The fuel consumption values shall be calculated from the emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide determined from the measurement results using the provisions defined in Appendix 8 to Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of the approval of the vehicle.

1.4.3.   The fuel consumption, expressed in litres per 100 km (in the case of petrol, LPG or diesel) or in m3 per 100 km (in the case of NG) is calculated by means of the following formulae:

(a)

for vehicles with a positive ignition engine fuelled with petrol:

FC = (0,1154 / D) · [(0,866 · HC) + (0,429 · CO) + (0,273 · CO2)]

(b)

for vehicles with a positive ignition engine fuelled with LPG:

FCnorm = (0,1212 / 0,538) · [(0,825 · HC) + (0,429 · CO) + (0,273 · CO2)]

If the composition of the fuel used for the test differs from the composition that is assumed for the calculation of the normalised consumption, on the manufacturer's request a correction factor cf may be applied, as follows:

FCnorm = (0,1212 / 0,538) · (cf) · [(0,825 · HC) + (0,429 · CO) + (0,273 · CO2)]

The correction factor cf, which may be applied, is determined as follows:

cf = 0,825 + 0,0693 · nactual

where:

nactual = the actual H/C ratio of the fuel used

(c)

for vehicles with a positive ignition engine fuelled with NG:

FCnorm = (0,1336 / 0,654) · [(0,749 · HC) + (0,429 · CO) + (0,273 · CO2)]

(d)

for vehicles with a compression ignition engine:

FC = (0,1155 / D) · [(0,866 · HC) + (0,429 · CO) + (0,273 · CO2)]

In these formulae:

FC

=

the fuel consumption in litre per 100 km (in the case of petrol, LPG or diesel) or in m3 per 100 km (in the case of natural gas)

HC

=

the measured emission of hydrocarbons in g/km

CO

=

the measured emission of carbon monoxide in g/km

CO2

=

the measured emission of carbon dioxide in g/km

D

=

the density of the test fuel.

In the case of gaseous fuels this is the density at 15 °C.


ANNEX 7

METHOD OF MEASURING THE ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF VEHICLES POWERED BY AN ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN ONLY

1.   TEST SEQUENCE

1.1.   Composition

The test sequence is composed of two parts (see Figure 1):

(a)

an urban cycle made of four elementary urban cycles;

(b)

an extra-urban cycle.

In case of a manual gear box with several gears, the operator changes the gear according to the manufacturer's specifications.

If the vehicle has several driving modes, which may be selected by the driver, the operator shall select the one to best match the target curve.

Figure 1

Test sequence — M1 and N1 categories of vehicles

Image

Theoretical distance

=

11 022 m

Average speed

=

33,6 km/h

1.2.   Urban cycle

The urban cycle is composed of four elementary cycles of 195 seconds each and lasts 780 seconds in total.

Description of the elementary urban cycle is given in Figure 2 and Table 1.

Figure 2

Elementary urban cycle (195 seconds)

Image

Table 1

Elementary urban cycle

Operation

No

Operation type

Mode

No

Acceleration

(m/s2)

Speed

(km/h)

Operation duration

(s)

Mode duration

(s)

Total time

(s)

1

Stop

1

0,00

0

11

11

11

2

Acceleration

2

1,04

0–15

4

4

15

3

Constant speed

3

0,00

15

8

8

23

4

Deceleration

4

–0,83

15–0

5

5

28

5

Stop

5

0,00

0

21

21

49

6

Acceleration

6

0,69

0–15

6

12

55

7

Acceleration

 

0,79

15–32

6

 

61

8

Constant speed

7

0,00

32

24

24

85

9

Deceleration

8

–0,81

32–0

11

11

96

10

Stop

9

0,00

0

21

21

117

11

Acceleration

10

0,69

0–15

6

26

123

12

Acceleration

 

0,51

15–35

11

 

134

13

Acceleration

 

0,46

35–50

9

 

143

14

Constant speed

11

0,00

50

12

12

155

15

Deceleration

12

–0,52

50–35

8

8

163

16

Constant speed

13

0,00

35

15

15

178

17

Deceleration

14

–0,97

35–0

10

10

188

18

Stop

15

0,00

0

7

7

195


Generalities

in time

(s)

in percentage

Stop

60

30,77

Acceleration

42

21,54

Constant speed

59

30,26

Deceleration

34

17,44

Total

195

100,00


Average speed (km/h)

18,77

Working time (s)

195

Theoretical distance by elementary urban cycle (m)

1 017

Theoretical distance for four elementary urban cycles (m)

4 067

1.3.   Extra-urban cycle

The description of the extra-urban cycle is given in Figure 3 and Table 2.

Figure 3

Extra-urban cycle (400 seconds)

Image

Note: The procedure to be adopted when the vehicle failed to meet the speed requirements of this curve is detailed in item 1.4.

Table 2

Extra-urban cycle

Operation

No

Operation type

Mode

No

Acceleration

(m/s2)

Speed

(km/h)

Operation duration

(s)

Mode duration

(s)

Total time

(s)

1

Stop

1

0,00

0

20

20

20

2

Acceleration

2

0,69

0–15

6

41

26

3

Acceleration

 

0,51

15–35

11

 

37

4

Acceleration

 

0,42

35–50

10

 

47

5

Acceleration

 

0,40

50–70

14

 

61

6

Constant speed

3

0,00

70

50

50

111

7

Deceleration

4

–0,69

70–50

8

8

119

8

Constant speed

5

0,00

50

69

69

188

9

Acceleration

6

0,43

50–70

13

13

201

10

Constant speed

7

0,00

70

50

50

251

11

Acceleration

8

0,24

70–100

35

35

286

12

Constant speed

9

0,00

100

30

30

316

13

Acceleration

10

0,28

100–120

20

20

336

14

Constant speed

11

0,00

120

10

10

346

15

Deceleration

12

–0,69

120–80

16

34

362

16

Deceleration

 

–1,04

80–50

8

 

370

17

Deceleration

 

–1,39

50–0

10

 

380

18

Stop

13

0,00

0

20

20

400


Generalities

in time

(s)

in percentage

Stop

40

10,00

Acceleration

109

27,25

Constant speed

209

52,25

Deceleration

42

10,50

Total

400

100,00


Average speed (km/h)

62,60

Working time (s)

400

Theoretical distance (m)

6 956

1.4.   Tolerance

Tolerances are given in Figure 4.

Figure 4

Speed tolerance

Image

Tolerances on speed (±2 km/h) and on time (±1 s) are geometrically combined at each point as represented in Figure 4.

Below 50 km/h, deviations beyond this tolerance are permitted as follows:

(a)

at gear changes for a duration less than 5 seconds;

(b)

and up to five times per hour at other times, for a duration less than 5 seconds each.

The total time out of tolerance has to be mentioned in the test report.

Over 50 km/h, it is accepted to go beyond tolerances provided the accelerator pedal is fully depressed.

2.   TEST METHOD

2.1.   Principle

The test method described hereafter allows the electric energy consumption, expressed in Wh/km, to be measured:

2.2.   Parameters, units and accuracy of measurements

Parameter

Units

Accuracy

Resolution

Time

s

±0,1 s

0,1 s

Distance

m

±0,1 per cent

1 m

Temperature

°C

±1 °C

1 °C

Speed

km/h

±1 per cent

0,2 km/h

Mass

kg

±0,5 per cent

1 kg

Energy

Wh

±0,2 per cent

Class 0,2 s according to IEC 687

IEC = International Electrotechnical Commission.

2.3.   Vehicle

2.3.1.   Condition of the vehicle

2.3.1.1.   The vehicle tyres shall be inflated to the pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer when the tyres are at the ambient temperature.

2.3.1.2.   The viscosity of the oils for the mechanical moving parts shall conform to the specification of the vehicle manufacturer.

2.3.1.3.   The lighting and light-signalling and auxiliary devices shall be off, except those required for testing and usual day-time operation of the vehicle.

2.3.1.4.   All energy storage systems available for other than traction purposes (electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, etc.) shall be charged up to their maximum level specified by the manufacturer.

2.3.1.5.   If the batteries are operated above the ambient temperature, the operator shall follow the procedure recommended by the car manufacturer in order to keep the temperature of the battery in the normal operating range.

The manufacturer's agent shall be in a position to attest that the thermal management system of the battery is neither disabled nor reduced.

2.3.1.6.   The vehicle must have undergone at least 300 km during the seven days before the test with those batteries that are installed in the test vehicle.

2.4.   Operation mode

All the tests are conducted at a temperature of between 20 °C and 30 °C.

The test method includes the four following steps:

(a)

Initial charge of the battery;

(b)

Application twice of the cycle made of four elementary urban cycles and an extra-urban cycle;

(c)

Charging the battery;

(d)

Calculation of the electric energy consumption.

Between the steps, if the vehicle shall move, it is pushed to the following test area (without regenerative recharging).

2.4.1.   Initial charge of the battery

Charging the battery consists of the following procedures:

2.4.1.1.   Discharge of the battery

The procedure starts with the discharge of the battery of the vehicle while driving (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.) at a steady speed of 70 % ± 5 % from the maximum 30 minutes speed of the vehicle.

Stopping the discharge occurs:

(a)

when the vehicle is not able to run at 65 % of the maximum thirty minutes speed;

(b)

or when an indication to stop the vehicle is given to the driver by the standard on-board instrumentation,

or

(c)

after covering the distance of 100 km.

2.4.1.2.   Application of a normal overnight charge

The battery shall be charged according to the following procedure.

2.4.1.2.1.   Normal overnight charge procedure

The charge is carried out:

(a)

with the on-board charger if fitted,

(b)

with an external charger recommended by the manufacturer, using the charging pattern prescribed for normal charging,

(c)

in an ambient temperature comprised between 20 °C and 30 °C.

This procedure excludes all types of special charges that could be automatically or manually initiated like, for instance, the equalisation charges or the servicing charges.

The car manufacturer shall declare that during the test, a special charge procedure has not occurred.

2.4.1.2.2.   End of charge criteria

The end of charge criteria corresponds to a charging time of 12 hours except if a clear indication is given to the driver by the standard instrumentation that the battery is not yet fully charged.

In this case,

Formula

2.4.1.2.3.   Fully charged battery

Battery having been charged according to overnight charge procedure until the end of charge criteria.

2.4.2.   Application of the cycle and measurement of the distance

The end of charging time t0 (plug off) is reported.

The chassis dynamometer shall be set with the method described in the Appendix to this annex.

Starting within 4 hours from t0, the cycle made of four elementary urban cycles and an extra-urban cycle is run twice on a chassis dynamometer (test distance: 22 km, test duration: 40 minutes).

At the end, the measure Dtest of the covered distance in km is recorded.

2.4.3.   Charge of the battery

The vehicle shall be connected to the mains within the 30 minutes after the conclusion of the cycle made of four elementary urban cycles and an extra-urban cycle, carried out twice.

The vehicle shall be charged according to normal overnight charge procedure (see paragraph 2.4.1.2 to this Annex).

The energy measurement equipment, placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger, measures the charge energy E delivered from the mains, as well as its duration.

Charging is stopped after 24 hours from the previous end of charging time (t0).

Note:

In case of a mains power cut, the 24 hours period will be extended accordingly to the cut duration. Validity of the charge will be discussed between the technical services of the approval laboratory and the vehicle's manufacturer.

2.4.4.   Electric energy consumption calculation

Energy E in Wh and charging time measurements are recorded in the test report.

The electric energy consumption c is defined by the formula:

Formula (expressed in Wh/km and rounded to the nearest whole number)

where Dtest is the distance covered during the test (km).

Appendix to Annex 7

Determination of the total road load power of a vehicle powered by an electric power train only, and calibration of the dynamometer

1.   INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this appendix is to define the method of measuring the total road load power of a vehicle with a statistical accuracy of ±4 per cent at a constant speed and to reproduce this measured road load power on a dynamometer with an accuracy of ±5 %.

2.   CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRACK

The test road layout shall be level, straight and free of obstacles or wind barriers which adversely affect the variability of road load measurement.

The test road longitudinal slope shall not exceed ±2 %. This slope is defined as the ratio of the difference in elevation between both ends of the test road and its overall length. In addition, the local inclination between any two points 3 m apart shall not deviate by more than ±0,5 % from this longitudinal slope.

The maximum cross-sectional camber of the test road shall be 1,5 % or less.

3.   ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

3.1.   Wind

Testing shall be performed at wind speeds averaging less than 3 m/s with peak speeds less than 5 m/s. In addition, the vector component of the wind speed across the test track must be less than 2 m/s. Wind velocity shall be measured at 0,7 m above the track surface.

3.2.   Humidity

The track shall be dry.

3.3.   Reference conditions

Barometric pressure

H0 = 100 kPa

Temperature

T0 = 293 K (20 °C)

Air density

d0 = 1,189 kg/m3

3.3.1.   Air density

3.3.1.1.   The air density during the test, calculated as described in paragraph 3.3.1.2 below, shall not differ by more than 7,5 % from the air density under the reference conditions.

3.3.1.2.   The air density shall be calculated by the formula:

Formula

where:

dT

is the air density during the test (kg/m3)

d0

is the air density at reference conditions (kg/m3)

HT

is the total barometric pressure during the test (kPa)

TT

is absolute temperature during the test (K).

3.3.2.   Ambient conditions

3.3.2.1.   The ambient temperature shall be between 5 °C (278 K) and 35 °C (308 K) and the barometric pressure between 91 kPa and 104 kPa. The relative humidity shall be less than 95 %.

3.3.2.2.   However, with the manufacturer's agreement, the tests may be made at lower ambient temperatures down to 1 °C. In this case the correction factor calculated for 5 °C should be used.

4.   PREPARATION OF THE VEHICLE

4.1.   Running-in

The vehicle shall be in normal running order and adjustment after having been run in for at least 300 km. The tyres shall be run in at the same time as the vehicle or shall have a tread depth within 90 and 50 % of the initial tread depth.

4.2.   Checks

The following checks shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications for the use considered: wheels, wheel rims, tyres (make, type, pressure), front axle geometry, brake adjustment (elimination of parasitic drag), lubrication of front and rear axles, adjustment of the suspension and vehicle ground clearance, etc. Check that during freewheeling, there is no electrical braking.

4.3.   Preparation for the test

4.3.1.   The vehicle shall be loaded to its test mass including driver and measurement equipments, spread in a uniform way in the loading areas.

4.3.2.   The windows of the vehicle shall be closed. Any covers for air conditioning systems, headlamps, etc. shall be closed.

4.3.3.   The vehicle shall be clean.

4.3.4.   Immediately before the test, the vehicle shall be brought to the normal running temperature in an appropriate manner.

5.   SPECIFIED SPEED V

The specified speed is required for determining the running resistance at the reference speed from the running resistance curve. To determine the running resistance as a function of vehicle speed in the vicinity of the reference speed Vo, running resistances shall be measured at the specified speed V. At least four to five points indicating the specified speeds, along with the reference speeds, are desired to be measured.

Table 1 shows the specified speeds in accordance with the category of the vehicle. The asterisk (*) indicates the reference speed in the table.

Table 1

Category

Vmax.

Specified speeds (km/h)

> 130

120 (2)

100

80 (1)

60

40

20

130 – 100

90

80 (1)

60

40

20

100 – 70

60

50 (1)

40

30

20

< 70

50 (2)

40 (1)

30

20

6.   ENERGY VARIATION DURING COAST-DOWN

6.1.   Total road load power determination

6.1.1.   Measurement equipment and accuracy

The margin of measurement error shall be less than 0,1 second for time and less than ±0,5 km/h for speed.

6.1.2.   Test procedure

6.1.2.1.   Accelerate the vehicle to a speed of 5 km/h greater than the speed at which test measurement begins.

6.1.2.2.   Put the gearbox to neutral, or disconnect the power supply.

6.1.2.3.   Measure the time t1 taken by the vehicle to decelerate from:

V2 = V + Δ Vkm/h to V1 = V – Δ Vkm/h

where:

Δ V ≤ 5 km/h for nominal speed ≤ 50 km/h

Δ V ≤ 10 km/h for nominal speed > 50 km/h

6.1.2.4.   Carry out the same test in the opposite direction, measuring time t2.

6.1.2.5.   Take the average T1 of the two times t1 and t2.

6.1.2.6.   Repeat these tests until the statistical accuracy (p) of the average

Formula

is equal to or less than 4 per cent (p ≤ 4 per cent).

The statistical accuracy (p) is defined by:

Formula

where:

t

is the coefficient given by the table below;

s

is the standard deviation: Formula

n

is the number of tests

n

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

t

3,2

2,8

2,6

2,5

2,4

2,3

2,3

t/

Formula

1,6

1,25

1,06

0,94

0,85

0,77

0,73

6.1.2.7.   Calculation of the running resistance force

The running resistance force F at the specified speed V is calculated as follows:

Formula [N]

where:

MHP

is the test mass,

Mr

is the equivalent inertia mass of all the wheels and vehicle portions rotating with the wheels during coast down on the road. Mr should be measured or calculated by an appropriate manner.

6.1.2.8.   The running resistance determined on the track shall be corrected to the reference ambient conditions as follows:

Fcorrected = k · Fmeasured

Formula

where:

RR

is the rolling resistance at speed V

RAERO

is the aerodynamic drag at speed V

RT

is the total road load = RR + RAERO

KR

is the temperature correction factor of rolling resistance, taken to be equal to: 3,6 × 10–3 °C

t

is the road test ambient temperature in °C

t0

is the reference ambient temperature = 20 °C

dt

is the air density at the test conditions

d0

is the air density at the reference conditions (20 °C, 100 kPa) = 1,189 kg/m3.

The ratios RR/RT and RAERO/RT shall be specified by the vehicle manufacturer on the basis of the data normally available to the company.

If these values are not available, subject to the agreement of the manufacturer and the technical service concerned, the figures for the rolling/total resistance ratio given by the following formula may be used:

Formula

where:

MHP

is the test mass

and for each speed the coefficients a and b are as shown in the following table:

V (km/h)

a

b

20

7,24 · 10–5

0,82

40

1,59 · 10–4

0,54

60

1,96 · 10–4

0,33

80

1,85 · 10–4

0,23

100

1,63 · 10–4

0,18

120

1,57 · 10–4

0,14

6.2.   Setting of the dynamometer

The purpose of this procedure is to simulate on the dynamometer the total road load power at a given speed.

6.2.1.   Measurement equipment and accuracy

The measuring equipment shall be similar to that used on the track.

6.2.2.   Test procedure

6.2.2.1.   Install the vehicle on the dynamometer.

6.2.2.2.   Adjust the tyre pressure (cold) of the driving wheels as required for the chassis dynamometer.

6.2.2.3.   Adjust the equivalent inertia mass of the chassis dynamometer, according to Table 2.

Table 2

Test mass

MHP

(kg)

Equivalent inertia

I

(kg)

MHP ≤ 480

455

480 < MHP ≤ 540

510

540 < MHP ≤ 595

570

595 < MHP ≤ 650

625

650 < MHP ≤ 710

680

710 < MHP ≤ 765

740

765 < MHP ≤ 850

800

850 < MHP ≤ 965

910

965 < MHP ≤ 1 080

1 020

1 080 < MHP ≤ 1 190

1 130

1 190 < MHP ≤ 1 305

1 250

1 305 < MHP ≤ 1 420

1 360

1 420 < MHP ≤ 1 530

1 470

1 530 < MHP ≤ 1 640

1 590

1 640 < MHP ≤ 1 760

1 700

1 760 < MHP ≤ 1 870

1 810

1 870 < MHP ≤ 1 980

1 930

1 980 < MHP ≤ 2 100

2 040

2 100 < MHP ≤ 2 210

2 150

2 210 < MHP ≤ 2 380

2 270

2 380 < MHP ≤ 2 610

2 270

2 610 < MHP

2 270

6.2.2.4.   Bring the vehicle and the chassis dynamometer to the stabilized operating temperature, in order to approximate the road conditions.

6.2.2.5.   Carry out the operations specified in paragraph 6.1.2 to this annex with the exception of paragraphs 6.1.2.4 and 6.1.2.5, replacing MHP by I and Mr by Mrm in the formula given in paragraph 6.1.2.7.

6.2.2.6.   Adjust the brake to reproduce the corrected running resistance half payload (paragraph 6.1.2.8 to this annex) and to take into account the difference between the vehicle mass on the track and the equivalent inertia test mass (I) to be used. This may be done by calculating the mean corrected road coast down time from V2 to V1 and reproducing the same time on the dynamometer by the following relationship:

Formula

where:

I

is the flywheel equivalent inertia mass of chassis dynamometer.

Mrm

is the equivalent inertia mass of the powered wheels and vehicle portions rotating with the wheels during coast down. Mrm shall be measured or calculated by an appropriate manner.

6.2.2.7.   The power Pa to be absorbed by the bench should be determined in order to enable the same total road load power to be reproduced for the same vehicle on different days or on different chassis dynamometers of the same type.


(1)  Reference speed.

(2)  If it could be reached by the vehicle.


ANNEX 8

METHOD OF MEASURING THE EMISSIONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE, FUEL CONSUMPTION AND THE ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF VEHICLES POWERED BY A HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN

1.   INTRODUCTION

1.1.   This Annex defines the specific provisions regarding type-approval of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) as defined in paragraph 2.12.2 (1) of this Regulation.

1.2.   As a general principle for the tests, hybrid electric vehicles shall be tested according to the principles applied to vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine only (Annex 6), unless modified by this Annex.

1.3.   OVC vehicles (as categorised in paragraph 2 to this Annex) shall be tested according to condition A and to condition B.

The test results under both conditions A and B and the weighted average shall be reported in the communication form described in Annex 4.

1.4.   Driving cycles and gear shifting points

1.4.1.   For vehicles with a manual transmission the driving cycle described in Appendix 1 of Annex 4 to Regulation No 83 in force at the time of approval of the vehicle shall be used, including the prescribed gear shifting points.

1.4.2.   For vehicles with a special gear shifting strategy the gear shifting points prescribed in Appendix 1 of Annex 4 to Regulation No 83 are not applied. For these vehicles the driving cycle specified in paragraph 2.3.3 of Annex 4 to Regulation No 83 in force at the time of approval of the vehicle shall be used. Concerning gear shifting points, these vehicles shall be driven according to the manufacturer's instructions, as incorporated in the drivers’ handbook of production vehicles and indicated by a technical gear shift instrument (for drivers information).

1.4.3.   For vehicles with an automatic transmission the driving cycle specified in paragraph 2.3.3 of Annex 4 to Regulation No 83 in force at the time of approval of the vehicle shall be used.

1.4.4.   For vehicle conditioning a combination of the Part One and/or Part Two cycles of the applicable driving cycle shall be used as prescribed in this Annex.

2.   CATEGORIES OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Vehicle charging

Off-vehicle charging (2)

(OVC)

Not Off-vehicle charging (3)

(NOVC)

Operating mode switch

Without

With

Without

With

3.   EXTERNALLY CHARGEABLE (OVC HEV) WITHOUT AN OPERATING MODE SWITCH

3.1.   Two tests shall be performed under the following conditions:

Condition A: test shall be carried out with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device.

Condition B: test shall be carried out with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity).

The profile of the state of charge (SOC) of the electrical energy/power storage device during different stages of the Type I test is given in Appendix 1.

3.2.   Condition A

The procedure shall start with the discharge of the electrical energy/power storage device as described in paragraph 3.2.1.1 below:

3.2.1.1.   Discharge of the electrical energy/power storage device

The electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle is discharged while driving (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.):

at a steady speed of 50 km/h until the fuel consuming engine of the HEV starts up,

or

if a vehicle can not reach a steady speed of 50 km/h without starting up the fuel consuming engine, the speed shall be reduced until the vehicle can run a lower steady speed where the fuel consuming engine just does not start up for a defined time/distance (to be specified between technical service and manufacturer),

or

with manufacturer's recommendation.

The fuel consuming engine shall be stopped within 10 seconds of it being automatically started.

3.2.2.   Conditioning of the vehicle

3.2.2.1.   For conditioning compression-ignition engined vehicles the Part Two cycle of the applicable driving cycle shall be used in combination with the applicable gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 of this Annex. Three consecutive cycles shall be driven.

3.2.2.2.   Vehicles fitted with positive-ignition engines shall be preconditioned with one Part One and two Part Two cycles of the applicable driving cycle in combination with the applicable gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 of this Annex.

3.2.2.3.   After this preconditioning, and before testing, the vehicle shall be kept in a room in which the temperature remains relatively constant between 293 and 303 K (20 °C and 30 °C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least six hours and continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if any, are within ±2 K of the temperature of the room, and the electrical energy/power storage device is fully charged as a result of the charging prescribed in paragraph 3.2.2.4 below.

3.2.2.4.   During soak, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged, using the normal overnight charging procedure as defined in paragraph 3.2.2.5 below.

3.2.2.5.   Application of a normal overnight charge

The electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged according to the following procedure.

3.2.2.5.1.   Normal overnight charge procedure

The charging is carried out:

(a)

with the on board charger if fitted,

or

(b)

with an external charger recommended by the manufacturer using the charging pattern prescribed for normal charging;

(c)

in an ambient temperature comprised between 20 °C and 30 °C.

This procedure excludes all types of special charges that could be automatically or manually initiated like, for instance, the equalisation charges or the servicing charges. The manufacturer shall declare that during the test, a special charge procedure has not occurred.

3.2.2.5.2.   End of charge criteria

The end of charge criteria corresponds to a charging time of 12 hours, except if a clear indication is given to the driver by the standard instrumentation that the electrical energy/power storage device is not yet fully charged.

In this case,

Formula

3.2.3.   Test procedure

3.2.3.1.   The vehicle shall be started up by the means provided for normal use to the driver. The first cycle starts on the initiation of the vehicle start-up procedure.

3.2.3.2.   Sampling shall begin (BS) before or at the initiation of the vehicle start up procedure and end on conclusion of the final idling period in the extra-urban cycle (Part Two, end of sampling (ES)).

3.2.3.3.   The vehicle shall be driven using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 to this Annex.

3.2.3.4.   The exhaust gases shall be analysed according to Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of approval of the vehicle.

3.2.3.5.   The test results on the combined cycle (CO2 and fuel consumption) for Condition A shall be recorded (respectively m1 [g] and c1 [l]).

3.2.4.   Within the 30 minutes after the conclusion of the cycle, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged according to paragraph 3.2.2.5 of this Annex.

The energy measurement equipment, placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger, measures the charge energy e1 [Wh] delivered from the mains.

3.2.5.   The electric energy consumption for condition A is e1 [Wh].

3.3.   Condition B

3.3.1.   Conditioning of the vehicle

3.3.1.1.   The electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle shall be discharged according to paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.

At the manufacturer's request, a conditioning according to paragraph 3.2.2.1. or 3.2.2.2. of this Annex may be carried out before electrical energy/power storage discharge.

3.3.1.2.   Before testing, the vehicle shall be kept in a room in which the temperature remains relatively constant between 293 and 303 K (20 °C and 30 °C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least six hours and continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if any, are within ±2 K of the temperature of the room.

3.3.2.   Test procedure

3.3.2.1.   The vehicle shall be started up by the means provided for normal use to the driver. The first cycle starts on the initiation of the vehicle start-up procedure.

3.3.2.2.   Sampling shall begin (BS) before or at the initiation of the vehicle start up procedure and end on conclusion of the final idling period in the extra-urban cycle (Part Two, end of sampling (ES)).

3.3.2.3.   The vehicle shall be driven using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 of this Annex.

3.3.2.4.   The exhaust gases shall be analysed according to Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of approval of the vehicle.

3.3.2.5.   The test results on the combined cycle (CO2 and fuel consumption) for Condition B shall be recorded (respectively m2 [g] and c2 [l]).

3.3.3.   Within the 30 minutes after the conclusion of the cycle, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged according to paragraph 3.2.2.5 of this Annex.

The energy measurement equipment, placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger, measures the charge energy e2 [Wh] delivered from the mains.

3.3.4.   The electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle shall be discharged according to paragraph 3.2.1.1 of this Annex.

3.3.5.   Within 30 minutes after the discharge, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged according to paragraph 3.2.2.5 of this Annex.

The energy measurement equipment, placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger, measures the charge energy e3 [Wh] delivered from the mains.

3.3.6.   The electric energy consumption e4 [Wh] for condition B is: e4 = e2 – e3

3.4.   Test results

3.4.1.   The values of CO2 shall be M1 = m1/Dtest1 and M2 = m2/Dtest2 [g/km] with Dtest1 and Dtest2 the actual driven distances in the tests performed under conditions A (paragraph 3.2 of this Annex) and B (paragraph 3.3. of this Annex) respectively, and m1 and m2 determined in paragraphs 3.2.3.5 and 3.3.2.5 of this Annex respectively.

3.4.2.   The weighted values of CO2 shall be calculated as below:

M = (De · M1 + Dav · M2)/(De + Dav)

where:

M

=

mass emission of CO2 in grams per kilometre

M1

=

mass emission of CO2 in grams per kilometre with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device

M2

=

mass emission of CO2 in grams per kilometre with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity)

De

=

vehicle's electric range, according to the procedure described in Annex 9, where the manufacturer must provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state

Dav

=

25 km (assumed average distance between two battery recharges)

3.4.3.   The values of fuel consumption shall be

C1 = 100 · c1/Dtest1 and C2 = 100 · c2/Dtest2 [l/100 km]

with Dtest1 and Dtest2 the actual driven distances in the tests performed under conditions A (paragraph 3.2 of this Annex) and B (paragraph 3.3 of this Annex) respectively, and c1 and c2 determined in paragraphs 3.2.3.5 and 3.3.2.5 of this Annex respectively.

3.4.4.   The weighted values of fuel consumption shall be calculated as below:

C = (De · C1 + Dav · C2)/(De + Dav)

where:

C

=

fuel consumption in l/100 km.

C1

=

fuel consumption in l/100 km with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device

C2

=

fuel consumption in l/100 km with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity)

De

=

vehicle's electric range, according to the procedure described in Annex 9, where the manufacturer must provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state.

Dav

=

25 km (assumed average distance between two battery recharges)

3.4.5.   The values of electric energy consumption shall be

E1 = e1/Dtest1 and E4 = e4/Dtest2 [Wh/km] with Dtest1 and Dtest2 the actual driven distances in the tests performed under conditions A (paragraph 3.2 of this Annex) and B (paragraph 3.3 of this Annex) respectively, and e1 and e4 determined in paragraphs 3.2.5 and 3.3.7 of this Annex respectively.

3.4.6.   The weighted values of electric energy consumption shall be calculated as below:

E = (De · E1 + Dav · E4)/(De + Dav)

where:

E

=

electric consumption Wh/km

E1

=

electric consumption Wh/km with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device calculated

E4

=

electric consumption Wh/km with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity)

De

=

vehicle's electric range, according to the procedure described in Annex 9, where the manufacturer must provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state

Dav

=

25 km (assumed average distance between two battery recharges)

4.   EXTERNALLY CHARGEABLE (OVC HEV) WITH AN OPERATING MODE SWITCH

Two tests shall be performed under the following conditions:

4.1.1.   Condition A: test shall be carried out with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device.

4.1.2.   Condition B: test shall be carried out with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity)

4.1.3.   The operating mode switch shall be positioned according to the table below:

Hybrid-modes

Battery state of charge

Pure electric

Hybrid

Pure fuel consuming

Hybrid

Pure electric

Pure fuel consuming

Hybrid

Hybrid mode n (4)

Hybrid mode m (4)

Switch in position

Switch in position

Switch in position

Switch in position

Condition A

Fully charged

Hybrid

Hybrid

Hybrid

Most electric hybrid mode (5)

Condition B

Min. state of charge

Hybrid

Fuel consuming

Fuel consuming

Most fuel consuming mode (6)

4.2.   Condition A

4.2.1.   If the electric range of the vehicle, as measured in accordance with Annex 9 to this Regulation, is higher than 1 complete cycle, on the request of the manufacturer, the type I test for electric energy measurement may be carried out in pure electric mode, after agreement of the technical service. In this case, the values of M1 and C1 in paragraph 4.4 are equal to 0.

The procedure shall start with the discharge of the electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle as described in paragraph 4.2.2.1 below.

4.2.2.1.   The electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle is discharged while driving with the switch in pure electric position (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.) at a steady speed of 70 % ± 5 % of the maximum speed of the vehicle in pure electric mode, which is to be determined according to the test procedure for electric vehicles defined in Regulation No 68.

Stopping the discharge occurs:

when the vehicle is not able to run at 65 % of the maximum thirty minutes speed,

or

when an indication to stop the vehicle is given to the driver by the standard on-board instrumentation,

or

after covering a distance of 100 km.

If the vehicle is not equipped with a pure electric mode, the electrical energy/power storage device discharge shall be achieved by driving the vehicle (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.):

at a steady speed of 50 km/h until the fuel consuming engine of the HEV starts up,

or

if a vehicle can not reach a steady speed of 50 km/h without starting up the fuel consuming engine, the speed shall be reduced until the vehicle can run a lower steady speed where the fuel consuming engine just does not start up for a defined time/distance (to be specified between technical service and manufacturer),

or

with manufacturer's recommendation.

The fuel-consuming engine shall be stopped within 10 seconds of it being automatically started.

4.2.3.   Conditioning of the vehicle

4.2.3.1.   For conditioning compression-ignition engined vehicles the Part Two cycle of the applicable driving cycle shall be used in combination with the applicable gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 of this Annex. Three consecutive cycles shall be driven.

4.2.3.2.   Vehicles fitted with positive-ignition engines shall be preconditioned with one Part One and two Part Two cycles of the applicable driving cycle in combination with the applicable gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 of this Annex.

4.2.3.3.   After this preconditioning, and before testing, the vehicle shall be kept in a room in which the temperature remains relatively constant between 293 and 303 K (20 °C and 30 °C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least six hours and continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if any, are within ±2 K of the temperature of the room, and the electrical energy/power storage device is fully charged as a result of the charging prescribed in paragraph 4.2.3.4 below.

4.2.3.4.   During soak, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged, using the normal overnight charging procedure as defined in paragraph 3.2.2.5 of this Annex.

4.2.4.   Test procedure

4.2.4.1.   The vehicle shall be started up by the means provided for normal use to the driver. The first cycle starts on the initiation of the vehicle start-up procedure.

4.2.4.2.   Sampling shall begin (BS) before or at the initiation of the vehicle start up procedure and end on conclusion of the final idling period in the extra-urban cycle (Part Two, end of sampling (ES)).

4.2.4.3.   The vehicle shall be driven using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 to this Annex.

4.2.4.4.   The exhaust gases shall be analysed according to Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of approval of the vehicle.

4.2.4.5.   The test results on the combined cycle (CO2 and fuel consumption) for Condition A shall be recorded (respectively m1 [g] and c1 [l]).

4.2.5.   Within the 30 minutes after the conclusion of the cycle, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged according to paragraph 3.2.2.5. of this Annex).

The energy measurement equipment, placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger, measures the charge energy e1 [Wh] delivered from the mains.

4.2.6.   The electric energy consumption for condition A is e1 [Wh].

4.3.   Condition B

4.3.1.   Conditioning of the vehicle

4.3.1.1.   The electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle shall be discharged according to paragraph 4.2.2.1. of this Annex.

At the manufacturer's request, a conditioning according to paragraph 4.2.3.1. or 4.2.3.2. of this Annex may be carried out before electrical energy/power storage discharge.

4.3.1.2.   Before testing, the vehicle shall be kept in a room in which the temperature remains relatively constant between 293 and 303 K (20 and 30 °C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least six hours and continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if any, are within ±2 K of the temperature of the room.

4.3.2.   Test procedure

4.3.2.1.   The vehicle shall be started up by the means provided for normal use to the driver. The first cycle starts on the initiation of the vehicle start-up procedure.

4.3.2.2.   Sampling shall begin (BS) before or at the initiation of the vehicle start up procedure and end on conclusion of the final idling period in the extra-urban cycle (Part Two, end of sampling (ES)).

4.3.2.3.   The vehicle shall be driven using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 to this Annex.

4.3.2.4.   The exhaust gases shall be analysed according Annex 4 of Regulation No 83 in force at the time of approval of the vehicle.

4.3.2.5.   The test results on the combined cycle (CO2 and fuel consumption) for Condition B shall be recorded (respectively m2 [g] and c2 [l]).

4.3.3.   Within the 30 minutes after the conclusion of the cycle, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged according to paragraph 3.2.2.5 of this Annex.

The energy measurement equipment, placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger, measures the charge energy e2 [Wh] delivered from the mains.

4.3.4.   The electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle shall be discharged in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2.1 of this Annex.

4.3.5.   Within 30 minutes after the discharge, the electrical energy/power storage device shall be charged according to paragraph 3.2.2.5 of this Annex.

The energy measurement equipment, placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger, measures the charge energy e3 [Wh] delivered from the mains.

4.3.6.   The electric energy consumption e4 [Wh] for condition B is: e4 = e2 – e3

4.4.   Test results

4.4.1.   The values of CO2 shall be:

M1 = m1/Dtest1 and M2 = m2/Dtest2 [g/km]

with Dtest1 and Dtest2 the actual driven distances in the tests performed under conditions A (paragraph 4.2 of this Annex) and B (paragraph 4.3 of this Annex) respectively, and m1 and m2 determined in paragraphs 4.2.4.5 and 4.3.2.5 of this Annex respectively.

4.4.2.   The weighted values of CO2 shall be calculated as below:

M = (De · M1 + Dav · M2)/(De + Dav)

where:

M

=

mass emission of CO2 in grams per kilometre.

M1

=

mass emission of CO2 in grams per kilometre with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device.

M2

=

mass emission of CO2 in grams per kilometre with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity).

De

=

vehicle's electric range, according to the procedure described in Annex 9, where the manufacturer must provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state.

Dav

=

25 km (assumed average distance between two battery recharges).

4.4.3.   The values of fuel consumption shall be

C1 = 100 · c1/Dtest1 and C2 = 100 · c2/Dtest2 [l/100 km]

with Dtest1 and Dtest2 the actual driven distances in the tests performed under conditions A (paragraph 4.2 of this Annex) and B (paragraph 4.3 of this Annex) respectively, and c1 and c2 determined in paragraphs 4.2.4.5 and 4.3.2.5 of this Annex respectively.

4.4.4.   The weighted values of fuel consumption shall be calculated as below:

C = (De · C1 + Dav · C2)/(De + Dav)

where:

C

=

fuel consumption in l/100 km.

C1

=

fuel consumption in l/100 km with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device.

C2

=

fuel consumption in l/100 km with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity).

De

=

vehicle's electric range, according to the procedure described in Annex 9, where the manufacturer must provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state.

Dav

=

25 km (assumed average distance between two battery recharges).

4.4.5.   The values of electric energy consumption shall be:

E1 = e1/Dtest1 and E4 = e4/Dtest2 [Wh/km]

with Dtest1 and Dtest2 the actual driven distances in the tests performed under conditions A (paragraph 4.2 of this Annex) and B (paragraph 4.3 of this Annex) respectively, and e1 and e4 determined in paragraphs 4.2.6 and 4.3.6 of this Annex respectively.

4.4.6.   The weighted values of electric energy consumption shall be calculated as below:

E = (De · E1 + Dav · E4)/(De + Dav)

where:

E

=

electric consumption Wh/km.

E1

=

electric consumption Wh/km with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device calculated.

E4

=

electric consumption Wh/km with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (maximum discharge of capacity).

De

=

vehicle's electric range, according to the procedure described in Annex 9, where the manufacturer must provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state.

Dav

=

25 km (assumed average distance between two battery recharges)

5.   NOT EXTERNALLY CHARGEABLE (NOVC HEV) WITHOUT AN OPERATING MODE SWITHCH

These vehicles shall be tested according to Annex 6, using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4. of this Annex.

5.1.1.   Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and fuel consumption shall be determined separately for the Part One (urban driving) and the Part Two (extra-urban driving) of the specified driving cycle.

5.2.   For preconditioning, at least two consecutive complete driving cycles (one Part One and one Part two) are carried out without intermediate soak, using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4. of this Annex.

5.3.   Test results

The test results (fuel consumption C [l/100 km] and CO2-emission M [g/km]) of this test are corrected in function of the energy balance ΔEbatt of the vehicle's battery.

The corrected values (C0 [l/100 km] and M0 [g/km]) should correspond to a zero energy balance (ΔEbatt = 0), and are calculated using a correction coefficient determined by the manufacturer as defined below.

In case of other storage systems than an electric battery, ΔEbatt is representing ΔEstorage, the energy balance of the electric energy storage device.

5.3.1.1.   The electricity balance Q [Ah], measured using the procedure specified in appendix 2 to this Annex, is used as a measure of the difference in the vehicle battery's energy content at the end of the cycle compared to the beginning of the cycle. The electricity balance is to be determined separately for the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle.

5.3.2.   Under the conditions below, it is allowed to take the uncorrected measured values C and M as the test results:

(1)

in case the manufacturer can prove that there is no relation between the energy balance and fuel consumption,

(2)

in case that ΔEbatt always corresponds to a battery charging,

(3)

in case that ΔEbatt always corresponds to a battery decharging and ΔEbatt is within 1 % of the energy content of the consumed fuel (consumed fuel meaning the total fuel consumption over 1 cycle).

The change in battery energy content ΔEbatt can be calculated from the measured electricity balance Q as follows:

ΔEbatt = ΔSOC(%) · ETEbatt ≅ 0,0036 · |ΔAh| · Vbatt = 0,0036 · Q · Vbatt (MJ)

with ETEbatt [MJ] the total energy storage capacity of the battery and Vbatt [V] the nominal battery voltage.

5.3.3.   Fuel consumption correction coefficient (Kfuel) defined by the manufacturer

5.3.3.1.   The fuel consumption correction coefficient (Kfuel) shall be determined from a set of n measurements performed by the manufacturer. This set should contain at least one measurement with Qi < 0 and at least one with Qj > 0.

If the latter condition can not be realised on the driving cycle (Part One or Part Two) used in this test, then it is up to the Technical Service to judge the statistical significance of the extrapolation necessary to determine the fuel consumption value at ΔEbatt = 0.

5.3.3.2.   The fuel consumption correction coefficient (Kfuel) is defined as:

Kfuel = (n · ΣQiCi – ΣQi · ΣCi)/(n · ΣQi 2 – (ΣQi)2) (l/100 km/Ah)

where:

Ci

=

fuel consumption measured during i-th manufacturer's test (l/100 km)

Qi

=

electricity balance measured during i-th manufacturer's test (Ah)

n

=

number of data.

The fuel consumption correction coefficient shall be rounded to four significant figures (e.g. 0,xxxx or xx,xx). The statistical significance of the fuel consumption correction coefficient is to be judged by the Technical Service.

5.3.3.3.   Separate fuel consumption correction coefficients shall be determined for the fuel consumption values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.

5.3.4.   Fuel consumption at zero battery energy balance (C0)

5.3.4.1.   The fuel consumption C0 at ΔEbatt = 0 is determined by the following equation:

C0 = C – Kfuel · Q (l/100 km)

where:

C

=

fuel consumption measured during test (l/100 km)

Q

=

electricity balance measured during test (Ah)

5.3.4.2.   Fuel consumption at zero battery energy balance shall be determined separately for the fuel consumption values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.

5.3.5.   CO2-emission correction coefficient (KCO2) defined by the manufacturer

5.3.5.1.   The CO2-emission correction coefficient (KCO2) shall be determined as follows from a set of n measurements performed by the manufacturer. This set should contain at least one measurement with Qi < 0 and at least one with Qj > 0.

If the latter condition can not be realised on the driving cycle (Part One or Part Two) used in this test, then it is up to the Technical Service to judge the statistical significance of the extrapolation necessary to determine the CO2-emission value at ΔEbatt = 0.

5.3.5.2.   The CO2-emission correction coefficient (KCO2) is defined as:

KCO2 = (n · ΣQiMi – ΣQi · ΣMi)/(n · ΣQi 2 – (ΣQi)2) (g/km/Ah)

where:

Mi

=

CO2-emission measured during i-th manufacturer's test (g/km)

Qi

=

electricity balance during i-th manufacturer's test (Ah)

n

=

number of data

The CO2-emission correction coefficient shall be rounded to four significant figures (e.g. 0,xxxx or xx,xx). The statistical significance of the CO2-emission correction coefficient is to be judged by the Technical Service.

5.3.5.3.   Separate CO2-emission correction coefficients shall be determined for the fuel consumption values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.

5.3.6.   CO2-emission at zero battery energy balance (M0)

5.3.6.1.   The CO2-emission M0 at ΔEbatt = 0 is determined by the following equation:

M0 = M – KCO2 · Q (g/km)

where:

M

=

CO2-emission measured during test (g/km)

Q

=

electricity balance measured during test (Ah)

5.3.6.2.   CO2-emission at zero battery energy balance shall be determined separately for the CO2-emission values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.

6.   NOT EXTERNALLY CHARGEABLE (NOT OVC HEV) WITH AN OPERATING MODE SWITCH

These vehicles shall be tested in hybrid mode according to Annex 6, using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4 of this Annex. If several hybrid modes are available, the test shall be carried out in the mode that is automatically set after turn on of the ignition key (normal mode).

6.1.1.   Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and fuel consumption shall be determined separately for the Part One (urban driving) and the Part Two (extra-urban driving) of the specified driving cycle.

6.2.   For preconditioning, at least two consecutive complete driving cycles (one Part One and one Part Two) are carried out without intermediate soak, using the applicable driving cycle and gear shifting prescriptions as defined in paragraph 1.4. of this Annex.

6.3.   Test results

The test results (fuel consumption C [l/100 km] and CO2-emission M [g/km]) of this test are corrected in function of the energy balance ΔEbatt of the vehicle's battery.

The corrected values (C0 [l/100 km] and M0 [g/km]) should correspond to a zero energy balance (ΔEbatt = 0), and are calculated using a correction coefficient determined by the manufacturer as defined below.

In case of other storage systems than an electric battery, ΔEbatt is representing ΔEstorage, the energy balance of the electric energy storage device.

6.3.1.1.   The electricity balance Q [Ah], measured using the procedure specified in appendix 2 to this Annex, is used as a measure of the difference in the vehicle battery's energy content at the end of the cycle compared to the beginning of the cycle. The electricity balance is to be determined separately for the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle.

6.3.2.   Under the conditions below, it is allowed to take the uncorrected measured values C and M as the test results:

(1)

in case the manufacturer can prove that there is no relation between the energy balance and fuel consumption,

(2)

in case that ΔEbatt always corresponds to a battery charging

(3)

in case that ΔEbatt always corresponds to a battery decharging and ΔEbatt is within 1 % of the energy content of the consumed fuel (consumed fuel meaning the total fuel consumption over one cycle)

The change in battery energy content ΔEbatt can be calculated from the measured electricity balance Q as follows:

ΔEbatt = ΔSOC(%) · ETEbatt ≅ 0,0036 · |ΔAh| · Vbatt = 0,0036 · Q · Vbatt (MJ)

with ETEbatt [MJ] the total energy storage capacity of the battery and Vbatt [V] the nominal battery voltage.

6.3.3.   Fuel consumption correction coefficient (Kfuel) defined by the manufacturer

6.3.3.1.   The fuel consumption correction coefficient (Kfuel) shall be determined from a set of n measurements performed by the manufacturer. This set should contain at least one measurement with Qi< 0 and at least one with Qj> 0.

If the latter condition can not be realised on the driving cycle (Part One or Part Two) used in this test, then it is up to the Technical Service to judge the statistical significance of the extrapolation necessary to determine the fuel consumption value at ΔEbatt = 0.

6.3.3.2.   The fuel consumption correction coefficient (Kfuel) is defined as:

Kfuel = (n · ΣQiCi – ΣQi · ΣCi)/(n · ΣQi 2 – (ΣQi)2) (l/100 km/Ah)

where:

Ci

=

fuel consumption measured during i-th manufacturer's test (l/100 km)

Qi

=

electricity balance measured during i-th manufacturer's test (Ah)

n

=

number of data

The fuel consumption correction coefficient shall be rounded to four significant figures (e.g. 0,xxxx or xx,xx). The statistical significance of the fuel consumption correction coefficient is to be judged by the Technical Service.

6.3.3.3.   Separate fuel consumption correction coefficients shall be determined for the fuel consumption values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.

6.3.4.   Fuel consumption at zero battery energy balance (C0)

6.3.4.1.   The fuel consumption C0 at ΔEbatt = 0 is determined by the following equation:

C0 = C – Kfuel · Q (l/100 km)

where:

C

=

fuel consumption measured during test (l/100 km)

Q

=

electricity balance measured during test (Ah)

6.3.4.2.   Fuel consumption at zero battery energy balance shall be determined separately for the fuel consumption values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.

6.3.5.   CO2-emission correction coefficient (KCO2) defined by the manufacturer

6.3.5.1.   The CO2-emission correction coefficient (KCO2) shall be determined as follows from a set of n measurements performed by the manufacturer. This set should contain at least one measurement with Qi < 0 and at least one with Qj > 0.

If the latter condition can not be realised on the driving cycle (Part One or Part Two) used in this test, then it is up to the Technical Service to judge the statistical significance of the extrapolation necessary to determine the CO2-emission value at ΔEbatt = 0.

6.3.5.2.   The CO2-emission correction coefficient (KCO2) is defined as:

KCO2 = (n · ΣQiMi – ΣQi · ΣMi)/(n · ΣQi 2 – (ΣQi)2) (g/km/Ah)

where:

Mi

=

CO2-emission measured during i-th manufacturer's test (g/km)

Qi

=

electricity balance during i-th manufacturer's test (Ah)

n

=

number of data

The CO2-emission correction coefficient shall be rounded to four significant figures (e.g. 0,xxxx or xx,xx). The statistical significance of the CO2-emission correction coefficient is to be judged by the Technical Service.

6.3.5.3.   Separate CO2-emission correction coefficients shall be determined for the fuel consumption values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.

6.3.6.   CO2-emission at zero battery energy balance (M0)

6.3.6.1.   The CO2-emission M0 at ΔEbatt = 0 is determined by the following equation:

M0 = M – KCO2 · Q (g/km)

where:

M

=

CO2-emission measured during test (g/km)

Q

=

electricity balance measured during test (Ah)

6.3.6.2.   CO2-emission at zero battery energy balance shall be determined separately for the CO2-emission values measured over the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle respectively.


(1)  Correction to the initial UN/ECE document: erroneous reference in source text. Reference should refer to paragraph 2.14.1 instead of paragraph 2.12.2.

(2)  Also known as ‘externally chargeable’.

(3)  Also known as ‘not externally chargeable’.

(4)  For instance: sport, economic, urban, extra-urban position …

(5)  Most electric hybrid mode:

The hybrid mode which can be proven to have the highest electricity consumption of all selectable hybrid modes when tested in accordance with condition A, to be established based on information provided by the manufacturer and in agreement with the technical service.

(6)  Most fuel consuming mode:

The hybrid mode which can be proven to have the highest fuel consumption of all selectable hybrid modes when tested in accordance with condition B, to be established based on information provided by the manufacturer and in agreement with the technical service.

Appendix 1 to Annex 8

Electrical energy/power storage device state of charge (SOC) profile for OVC HEVs

The SOC profiles for OVC-HEVs tested under conditions A and B are:

Condition A:

Image

(1)

Initial state of charge of the electrical energy/power storage device.

(2)

Discharge according to paragraph 3.2.1 or 4.2.2 of this Annex.

(3)

Vehicle conditioning according to paragraph 3.2.2.1/3.2.2.2 or 4.2.3.1/4.2.3.2 of this Annex.

(4)

Charge during soak according to paragraph 3.2.2.3 and 3.2.2.4 or 4.2.3.3 and 4.2.3.4 of this Annex.

(5)

Test according to paragraph 3.2.3 or 4.2.4 of this Annex.

(6)

Charging according to paragraph 3.2.4 or 4.2.5 of this Annex.

Condition B:

Image

(1)

Initial state of charge.

(2)

Vehicle conditioning according to paragraph 3.3.1.1 or 4.3.1.1 (optional) of this Annex.

(3)

Discharge according to paragraph 3.3.1.1 or 4.3.1.1 of this Annex.

(4)

Soak according to paragraph 3.3.1.2 or 4.3.1.2 of this Annex.

(5)

Test according to paragraph 3.3.2 or 4.3.2 of this Annex.

(6)

Charging according to paragraph 3.3.3 or 4.3.3 of this Annex.

(7)

Discharging according to paragraph 3.3.4 or 4.3.4 of this Annex.

(8)

Charging according to paragraph 3.3.5 or 4.3.5 of this Annex.

Appendix 2 to Annex 8

Method for measuring the electricity balance of the battery of a NOVC HEV

1.   INTRODUCTION

1.1.   The purpose of this appendix is to define the method and required instrumentation for measuring the electricity balance of not off vehicle charging hybrid electric vehicles (NOVC HEVs). Measurement of the electricity balance is necessary to correct the measured fuel consumption and CO2-emissions for the change in battery energy content occurring during the test, using the method defined in paragraphs 5 and 6 of this Annex.

1.2.   The method described in this Annex shall be used by the manufacturer for the measurements that are performed to determine the correction factors Kfuel and KCO2, as defined in paragraphs 5.3.3.2, 5.3.5.2, 6.3.3.2, and 6.3.5.2 of this Annex.

The Technical Service shall check whether these measurements have been performed in accordance with the procedure described in this Annex.

1.3.   The method described in this Annex shall be used by the Technical Service for the measurement of the electricity balance Q, as defined in paragraphs 5.3.4.1, 5.3.6.1, 6.3.4.1, and 6.3.6.1 of this Annex.

2.   MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

During the tests as described in paragraphs 5 and 6 of this Annex, the battery current shall be measured using a current transducer of the clamp-on type or the closed type. The current transducer (i.e. the current sensor without data acquisition equipment) shall have a minimum accuracy of 0,5 per cent of the measured value or 0,1 per cent of the maximum value of the scale.

OEM diagnostic testers are not to be used for the purpose of this test.

2.1.1.   The current transducer shall be fitted on one of the wires directly connected to the battery. In order to easily measure battery current using external measuring equipment, manufacturers should preferably integrate appropriate, safe and accessible connection points in the vehicle. If that is not feasible, the manufacturer is obliged to support the Technical Service by providing the means to connect a current transducer to the wires connected to the battery in the above described manner.

2.1.2.   The output of the current transducer shall be sampled with a minimum sample frequency of 5 Hz. The measured current shall be integrated over time, yielding the measured value of Q, expressed in Ampere hours (Ah).

2.1.3.   The temperature at the location of the sensor shall be measured and sampled with the same sample frequency as the current, so that this value can be used for possible compensation of the drift of current transducers and, if applicable, the voltage transducer used to convert the output of the current transducer.

2.2.   A list of the instrumentation (manufacturer, model No, serial No) used by the manufacturer for determining the correction factors Kfuel and KCO2 (as defined in paragraphs 5.3.3.2, 5.3.5.2, 6.3.3.2, and 6.3.5.2 of this Annex) and the last calibration dates of the instruments (where applicable) should be provided to the Technical Service.

3.   MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE

3.1.   Measurement of the battery current shall start at the same time as the test starts and shall end immediately after the vehicle has driven the complete driving cycle.

3.2.   Separate values of Q shall be logged over the Part One and Part Two of the cycle.


ANNEX 9

METHOD OF MEASURING THE ELECTRIC RANGE OF VEHICLES POWERED BY AN ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN ONLY OR BY A HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN

1.   MEASUREMENT OF THE ELECTRIC RANGE

The test method described hereafter permits to measure the electric range, expressed in km, of vehicles powered by an electric power train only or of vehicles powered by a hybrid electric power train with off-vehicle charging (OVC-HEV as defined in paragraph 2 of Annex 8).

2.   PARAMETERS, UNITS AND ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENTS

Parameters, units and accuracy of measurements shall be as follows:

Parameters, units and accuracy of measurements

Parameter

Unit

Accuracy

Resolution

Time

s

±0,1 s

0,1 s

Distance

m

±0,1 %

1 m

Temperature

°C

±1 °C

1 °C

Speed

km/h

±1 %

0,2 km/h

Mass

kg

±0,5 %

1 kg

3.   TEST CONDITIONS

3.1.   Condition of the vehicle

3.1.1.   The vehicle tyres shall be inflated to the pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer when the tyres are at the ambient temperature.

3.1.2.   The viscosity of the oils for the mechanical moving parts shall conform to the specifications of the vehicle manufacturer.

3.1.3.   The lighting and light-signalling and auxiliary devices shall be off, except those required for testing and usual daytime operation of the vehicle.

3.1.4.   All energy storage systems available for other than traction purposes (electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, etc.) shall be charged up to their maximum level specified by the manufacturer.

3.1.5.   If the batteries are operated above the ambient temperature, the operator shall follow the procedure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer in order to keep the temperature of the battery in the normal operating range.

The manufacturer's agent shall be in a position to attest that the thermal management system of the battery is neither disabled nor reduced.

3.1.6.   The vehicle must have undergone at least 300 km during the seven days before the test with those batteries that are installed in the test vehicle.

3.2.   Climatic conditions

For testing performed outdoors, the ambient temperature shall be between 5 °C and 32 °C.

The indoors testing shall be performed at a temperature between 20 °C and 30 °C.

4.   OPERATION MODES

The test method includes the following steps:

(a)

Initial charge of the battery.

(b)

Application of the cycle and measurement of the electric range.

Between the steps, if the vehicle shall move, it is pushed to the following test area (without regenerative recharging).

4.1.   Initial charge of the battery

Charging the battery consists of the following procedures:

Note:‘Initial charge of the battery’ applies to the first charge of the battery, at the reception of the vehicle. In case of several combined tests or measurements, carried out consecutively, the first charge carried out shall be an ‘initial charge of the battery’ and the following may be done in accordance with the ‘normal overnight charge’ procedure.

4.1.1.   Discharge of the battery

For pure electric vehicles:

4.1.1.1.1.   The procedure starts with the discharge of the battery of the vehicle while driving (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.) at a steady speed of 70 % ± 5 % from the maximum 30 minutes speed of the vehicle.

4.1.1.1.2.   Stopping the discharge occurs:

(a)

when the vehicle is not able to run at 65 per cent of the maximum thirty minutes speed;

(b)

or when an indication to stop the vehicle is given to the driver by the standard on-board instrumentation;

or

(c)

after covering the distance of 100 km.

For externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle (OVC HEV) without an operating mode switch as defined in Annex 8:

4.1.1.2.1.   The manufacturer shall provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state.

4.1.1.2.2.   The procedure shall start with the discharge of the electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle while driving (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.):

at a steady speed of 50 km/h until the fuel consuming engine of the HEV starts up,

or

if a vehicle can not reach a steady speed of 50 km/h without starting up the fuel consuming engine, the speed shall be reduced until the vehicle can run at a lower steady speed where the fuel consuming engine just does not start up for a defined time/distance (to be specified between technical service and manufacturer),

or

with manufacturer's recommendation.

The fuel consuming engine shall be stopped within 10 seconds of it being automatically started.

For externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle (OVC HEV) with an operating mode switch as defined in Annex 8:

4.1.1.3.1.   If there is not a pure electric position, the manufacturer shall provide the means for performing the measurement with the vehicle running in pure electric operating state.

4.1.1.3.2.   The procedure shall start with the discharge of the electrical energy/power storage device of the vehicle while driving with the switch in pure electric position (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.) at a steady speed of 70 % ± 5 % of the maximum thirty minutes speed of the vehicle.

4.1.1.3.3.   Stopping the discharge occurs:

when the vehicle is not able to run at 65 % of the maximum thirty minutes speed,

or

when an indication to stop the vehicle is given to the driver by the standard on-board instrumentation,

or

after covering the distance of 100 km.

4.1.1.3.4.   If the vehicle is not equipped with a pure electric operating state, the electrical energy/power storage device discharge shall be achieved by driving the vehicle (on the test track, on a chassis dynamometer, etc.):

at a steady speed of 50 km/h until the fuel consuming engine of the HEV starts up,

or

if a vehicle can not reach a steady speed of 50 km/h without starting up the fuel consuming engine, the speed shall be reduced until the vehicle can run a lower steady speed where the fuel consuming engine just does not start up for a defined time/distance (to be specified between technical service and manufacturer),

or

with manufacturer's recommendation.

The fuel consuming engine shall be stopped within 10 seconds of it being automatically started.

4.1.2.   Application of a normal overnight charge

For a pure electric vehicle, the battery shall be charged according to the normal overnight charge procedure, as defined in paragraph 2.4.1.2 of Annex 7, for a period not exceeding 12 hours.

For an OVC HEV, the battery shall be charged according to the normal overnight charge procedure as described in paragraph 3.2.2.5 of Annex 8.

4.2.   Application of the cycle and measurement of the range

4.2.1.   For pure electric vehicle:

4.2.1.1.   The test sequence as defined in paragraph 1.1 of Annex 7 is applied on a chassis dynamometer adjusted as described in appendix 1 of Annex 7, until the end of the test criteria is reached.

4.2.1.2.   The end of the test criteria is reached when the vehicle is not able to meet the target curve up to 50 km/h, or when an indication from the standard on-board instrumentation is given to the driver to stop the vehicle.

Then the vehicle shall be slowed down to 5 km/h by releasing the accelerator pedal, without touching the brake pedal and then stopped by braking.

4.2.1.3.   At a speed over 50 km/h, when the vehicle does not reach the required acceleration or speed of the test cycle, the accelerator pedal shall remain fully depressed until the reference curve has been reached again.

4.2.1.4.   To respect human needs, up to three interruptions are permitted between test sequences, of no more than 15 minutes in total.

4.2.1.5.   At the end, the measure De of the covered distance in km is the electric range of the electric vehicle. It shall be rounded to the nearest whole number

4.2.2.   For hybrid electric vehicle:

4.2.2.1.   The applicable test sequence and accompanying gear shift prescription, as defined in paragraph 1.4 of Annex 8, is applied on a chassis dynamometer adjusted as described in Appendix 2, 3, and 4 of Annex 4 of Regulation No 83, until the end of the test criteria is reached.

4.2.2.2.   The end of the test criteria is reached when the vehicle is not able to meet the target curve up to 50 km/h, or when an indication from the standard on-board instrumentation is given to the driver to stop the vehicle or when the fuel consuming engine starts up. Then the vehicle shall be slowed down to 5 km/h by releasing the accelerator pedal, without touching the brake pedal and then stopped by braking.

4.2.2.3.   At a speed over 50 km/h, when the vehicle does not reach the required acceleration or speed of the test cycle, the accelerator pedal shall remain fully depressed until the reference curve has been reached again.

4.2.2.4.   To respect human needs, up to three interruptions are permitted between test sequences, of no more than 15 minutes in total.

4.2.2.5.   At the end, the measure De of the covered distance in km is the electric range of the hybrid electric vehicle. It shall be rounded to the nearest whole number.


ANNEX 10

EMISSIONS TEST PROCEDURE FOR A VEHICLE EQUIPPED WITH A PERIODICALLY REGENERATING SYSTEM

1.   INTRODUCTION

1.1.   This Annex defines the specific provisions regarding type-approval of a vehicle equipped with a periodically regenerating system as defined in paragraph 2.16. of this Regulation.

2.   SCOPE AND EXTENSION OF THE TYPE APPROVAL

2.1.   Vehicle family groups equipped with periodically regenerating system

The procedure applies to vehicles equipped with a periodically regenerating system as defined in paragraph 2.16 of this Regulation. For the purpose of this annex vehicle family groups may be established. Accordingly, those vehicle types with regenerative systems, whose parameters described below are identical, or within the stated tolerances, shall be considered to belong to the same family with respect to measurements specific to the defined periodically regenerating systems.

2.1.1.   Identical parameters are:

Engine:

(a)

number of cylinders

(b)

engine capacity (±15 %)

(c)

number of valves

(d)

fuel system

(e)

combustion process (two stroke, four stroke, rotary).

Periodically regenerating system (i.e. catalyst, particulate trap):

(a)

construction (i.e. type of enclosure, type of precious metal, type of substrate, cell density)

(b)

type and working principle

(c)

dosage and additive system

(d)

volume (±10 %)

(e)

location (temperature ±50 °C at 120 km/h or 5 % difference of maximum temperature/pressure).

2.2.   Vehicle types of different reference masses

The Ki factor developed by the procedures in this Annex for type approval of a vehicle type with a periodically regenerating system as defined in paragraph 2.16 of this Regulation, may be extended to other vehicles in the family group with a reference mass within the next two higher equivalent inertia classes or any lower equivalent inertia.

2.3.   Instead of carrying out the test procedures defined in the following section, a fixed Ki value of 1,05 may be used, if the technical service sees no reason that this value could be exceeded.

3.   TEST PROCEDURE

The vehicle may be equipped with a switch capable of preventing or permitting the regeneration process provided that this operation has no effect on original engine calibration. This switch shall be permitted only for the purpose of preventing regeneration during loading of the regeneration system and during the pre-conditioning cycles. However, it shall not be used during the measurement of emissions during the regeneration phase; rather the emission test shall be carried out with the unchanged Original Equipment Manufacturer's (OEM) control unit.

3.1.   Measurement of carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption between two cycles where regenerative phases occur

3.1.1.   Average of carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption between regeneration phases and during loading of the regenerative device shall be determined from the arithmetic mean of several approximately equidistant (if more than two) Type I operating cycles or equivalent engine test bench cycles. As an alternative, the manufacturer may provide data to show that the carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption remain constant ±4 % between regeneration phases. In this case, the carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption measured during the regular Type I test may be used. In any other case emissions measurement for at least two Type I operating cycles or equivalent engine test bench cycles must be completed: one immediately after regeneration (before new loading) and one as close as possible prior to a regeneration phase. All emissions measurements and calculations shall be carried out according to Annex 6.

3.1.2.   The loading process and Ki determination shall be made during the Type I operating cycle, on a chassis dynamometer or on an engine test bench using an equivalent test cycle. These cycles may be run continuously (i.e. without the need to switch the engine off between cycles). After any number of completed cycles, the vehicle may be removed from the chassis dynamometer, and the test continued at a later time.

3.1.3.   The number of cycles (D) between two cycles where regeneration phases occur, the number of cycles over which emissions measurements are made (n), and each emissions measurement (M′sij) shall be reported in Annex 1, items 4.1.11.2.1.10.1 to 4.1.11.2.1.10.4 or 4.1.11.2.5.4.1 to 4.1.11.2.5.4.4 as applicable.

3.2.   Measurement of carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption during regeneration

3.2.1.   Preparation of the vehicle, if required, for the emissions test during a regeneration phase, may be completed using the preparation cycles in paragraph 5.3 of Annex 4 to Regulation No 83 or equivalent engine test bench cycles, depending on the loading procedure chosen in paragraph 3.1.2 above.

3.2.2.   The test and vehicle conditions for the test described in Annex 6 apply before the first valid emission test is carried out.

Regeneration must not occur during the preparation of the vehicle. This may be ensured by one of the following methods:

3.2.3.1.   A ‘dummy’ regenerating system or partial system may be fitted for the pre-conditioning cycles.

3.2.3.2.   Any other method agreed between the manufacturer and the type approval authority.

3.2.4.   A cold-start exhaust emission test including a regeneration process shall be performed according to the Type I operating cycle, or equivalent engine test bench cycle. If the emissions tests between two cycles where regeneration phases occur are carried out on an engine test bench, the emissions test including a regeneration phase shall also be carried out on an engine test bench.

3.2.5.   If the regeneration process requires more than one operating cycle, subsequent test cycle(s) shall be driven immediately, without switching the engine off, until complete regeneration has been achieved (each cycle shall be completed). The time necessary to set up a new test should be as short as possible (e.g. particular matter filter change). The engine must be switched off during this period.

3.2.6.   The carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption values during regeneration (Mri) shall be calculated according to Annex 6. The number of operating cycles (d) measured for complete regeneration shall be recorded.

3.3.   Calculation of the combined carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption

Formula

n ≥ 2;

Formula

Formula

where for each carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption considered:

M′sij

=

mass emissions of CO2 in g/km and fuel consumption in l/100 km over one part (i) of the operating cycle (or equivalent engine test bench cycle) without regeneration

M′rij

=

mass emissions of CO2 in g/km and fuel consumption in l/100 km over one part (i) of the operating cycle (or equivalent engine test bench cycle) during regeneration. (when n > 1, the first Type I test is run cold, and subsequent cycles are hot)

Msi

=

mean mass emissions of CO2 in g/km and fuel consumption in l/100 km over one part (i) of the operating cycle without regeneration

Mri

=

mean mass emissions of CO2 in g/km and fuel consumption in l/100 km over one part (i) of the operating cycle during regeneration

Mpi

=

mean mass emission of CO2 in g/km and fuel consumption in l/100 km

N

=

number of test points at which emissions measurements (Type I operating cycles or equivalent engine test bench cycles) are made between two cycles where regenerative phases occur, ≥ 2

d

=

number of operating cycles required for regeneration

D

=

number of operating cycles between two cycles where regenerative phases occur

For exemplary illustration of measurement parameters see Figure 10/1.

Figure 10/1

Parameters measured during carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption test during and between cycles where regeneration occurs (schematic example, the emissions during ‘D’ may increase or decrease)

Image

3.4.   Calculation of the regeneration factor K for each carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption (i) considered

Ki = Mpi / Msi

Msi, Mpi and Ki results shall be recorded in the test report delivered by the Technical Service.

Ki may be determined following the completion of a single sequence.