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Annex A3 Abbreviations and symbols in common use

For advice on the use of abbreviations and symbols, please see Section 10.8.

1. Civil titles

Mr
Messrs
Mrs
Miss
Ms
Dr
Drs
Prof.
Profs
HRH
St
HE
(His or Her Excellency)

2. Units of measurement

(written without points, they are not closed up to figures and take no plural)

mm
millimetre
cm
centimetre
cc
cubic centimetre (engines etc., but use cm3 in scientific and technical work)
m
metre (use m2 not sq. m)
km
kilometre (use km2 not sq. km)
km/h
kilometres per hour
mg
milligram
g
gram
kg
kilogram
t
tonne
GT
gross tonnage (shipping)
ml
millilitre
l
litre
hl
hectolitre
ha
hectare
s
second
min
minute
h or hr
hour
A
ampere
cd
candela
Hz
hertz
V
volt
W
watt
kW
kilowatt
MW
megawatt = 103 kW
kWh
kilowatt-hour
GWh
gigawatt-hour = 106 kWh
°C
degree Celsius
J
joule
n
nano-
N
newton
TJ
terajoule = 109 kJ
tkm
tonne-kilometre
toe
tonne of oil equivalent

3. Statistical symbols and abbreviations

nil
0
negligible (generally less than half the smallest unit or decimal of the heading)
:
figure not available or secret
not equal to
*
estimate
p
provisional figure
r
revised figure
| or —
discontinuity in series
break in comparability
%
percentage
% AT
percentage variation
D
difference
Ø
average
MP/ØP
weighted average
AM
average annual growth
<
less than
>
more than
S
total
‘comprising’: complete breakdown of a total
‘among which’: partial breakdown of a total
θ
world
m
million (spell out in full wherever possible)
nes
not elsewhere specified
p.m.
token entry
1990-1992
period of several calendar years (e.g. from 1.1.1990 to 31.12.1992)
1991/1992
period of 12 consecutive months (e.g. tax year from April to March)

4. Other abbreviations

EU-6
the first six countries of the EC
EU-9
the first nine countries of the EC
EU-10
the first 10 countries of the EC
EU-12
the first 12 countries of the EC
EU-15
the first 15 countries of the EU
EU-25
the first 25 countries of the EU
EU-27
Europe of the twenty-seven: refers either to the 27 Member States comprising the European Union between 1 January 2007 and 30 June 2013, or to the 27 Member States comprising the European Union since the departure of the United Kingdom on 31 January 2020. If there is a risk of confusion between the two, it should be specified which configuration is covered by the abbreviation used, possibly in the form of a footnote.
EU-28
the first 28 countries of the EU
FOB
free on board
CIF
cost, insurance and freight
psr
produced in specific regions (quality wines)
plc
public limited company
SA
société anonyme
SARL
société à responsabilité limitée
SPRL
société de personnes à responsabilité limitée
GmbH
Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung
SNC
società in nome colletivo
SpA
società per azioni
BV
besloten vennootschap
NV
naamloze vennootschap

The following abbreviations are used mainly in footnotes and bibliographies; in running text the complete form is preferable:

Art. (Arts)
Article(s)
Chap.
Chapter
Vol.
Volume
p.
page
pp.
pages
Tab.
Table
Gr.
Graph
Pl.
Plate
Illus.
Illustration
Fig.
Figure
cont.
continued
Last updated: 23.7.2020
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