10.4. Upper and lower case
Mr Goldsmith is a baker but Mr Baker is a goldsmith.
Sir Francis Drake
the Archbishop of Canterbury
Dame Judi Dench
honourable Member (of the European Parliament)
the programme on research and development in advanced communications technologies in Europe
common agricultural policy
EU action plan on urban mobility
Europe 2020 strategy
common agricultural policy (CAP)
non-governmental organisation (NGO)
European Central Bank (ECB) (as this is the official name of the institution)
Publications and Dissemination Directorate
Business Development and Support Unit
Editorial Partnerships Section
Future Policies Working Group
President of the Council
Director-General for Agriculture
Council of Europe
European Development Fund
Markets in Crop Products Directorate
President of the French Republic
Vice-Chair of the Committee on International Relations (but refer back to the chair, the vice-chair of the committee)
Use lower case when referring generally to unnamed directorates-general, sections or units, or to ‘the EU institutions’ collectively.
Permanent bodies require initial capitals (e.g. the Delegation of the European Union to the United States), while ad hoc groups (e.g. the Polish delegation to a meeting) do not.
Use a lower-case ‘p’ for the Council presidency (being general), but an initial capital for individual presidencies, e.g. ‘the Latvian Presidency’.
However, for long names that read more like a description than a real title use an initial capital for the head word and lower case for the rest:
Committee for the adaptation to technical progress of the directive on the introduction of recording equipment in road transport (tachograph)
Joint FAO/EC working party on forest and forest product statistics
Names of institutions reproduced in a foreign language should retain the capitalisation of the original language, e.g. Banque centrale du Luxembourg. If you translate the name directly then English capitalisation rules apply, e.g. the Central Bank of Luxembourg.
International Coffee Agreement
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
but use lower case when referring back to the agreement, the conference, etc.
Publications. Titles of books, journals, newspapers and periodicals normally take a capital on each word except articles, prepositions and conjunctions, and when cited are written in italics: Daily Mail, Cambridge Journal of Economics, European Economy, PM2 Project Management Methodology Guide, Interinstitutional Style Guide. However, for long titles and all subtitles use a capital only on the first word, on any proper nouns and on any adjectives formed from proper nouns: Economic and budgetary outlook for the European Union 2017, Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration.
Likewise, titles of papers included in journals or as chapters in books, along with newspaper articles, take a capital only on the first word, on any proper nouns and on any adjectives formed from proper nouns. They are written in roman type in quotation marks.
Second World War
and events such as:
International Year of the Child
European Job Day
Second UN Development Decade
Use capitals for days of the week, months and feast days:
Tuesday, August, Ascension Day, pre-Christmas business
Do not use capitals, however, for the 2003/2004 marketing year, the 2004 budget year, and so on.
Do not use capitals for spring, summer, autumn or winter.
see page 250
as shown in Figure 5
refer to footnote 6
see also the following chapter/section
Socialist Group, Fianna Fáil Party
but liberal, socialist, etc. otherwise.
For political groups in the European Parliament, see http://www.europarl.europa.eu/aboutparliament/en/007f2537e0/Political-groups.html.
reasons of state
the Arab states
except in in an abstract or legal sense:
the separation of Church and State
and in the following instances, which are rooted in the Treaties:
Member States (when referring to EU ֹMember States)
Heads of State or Government (when referring to the heads of state or government of all of the Member States as a group)
the North-West Frontier
but lower case when describing a geographical area:
western, central and eastern Europe
central European countries
Industry is concentrated in the north of the country.
NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) region names do not follow these rules as they refer to the name of the authority for each region – see Annex A10.
The South East is an administrative region of England, but do not use capitals in the general expression ‘Rain is forecast for London and the south-east’.
Adjectival forms of points of the compass are not capitalised unless they form part of a proper name, e.g. an administrative or political unit or a distinct regional entity. Hence southern Africa, northern France, eastern Europe but South Africa, Northern Ireland, East Indies. Noun forms are capitalised when they refer to geopolitical concepts (the West, the East) or geographical concepts (the North of England, the South of France), but not otherwise (the sun rises in the east and sets in the west). Compass bearings are abbreviated without a point (54° E).
Compound compass points follow the same rule and are hyphenated. Hence south-eastern Europe but the North-West Passage, South-East Asia; they are always abbreviated as capitals without points (NW France).
unless they have become generic terms, such as
The name of the genus appears with initial capitals, in italics (e.g. Rosa, Felis).
french (chalk, polish, windows)
Hyphenated constructions. Where constructions starting with one letter followed by a hyphen appear as a heading or at the beginning of a sentence, the letter preceding the hyphen should remain in lower case: