10.1.8. Dashes and hyphens
When citing titles of publications or documents, use a short dash to separate the title from the subtitle.
The long (or ‘em’) dash can be used as a bullet point in lists (see Section 5.7).
They discussed the buying-in of sugar.
up-to-date statistics, long-term policies, foot-and-mouth disease
Exception: value added tax.
Do not hyphenate:
newly industrialised developing countries
ever closer union
Many phrases are treated as compounds, and thus need a hyphen, only when used as modifiers:
up-to-date statistics, but the statistics are up to date
long-term effects, but effects in the long term
Other adjectives always take a hyphen:
carbon-neutral energy sources, and energy sources that are carbon-neutral
anti-American, non-cooperative, co-responsibility levy, co-funded, self-employed
unless the prefix has become part of the word by usage:
cooperation, coordination, subsection, reshuffle, email
the Brussels–Paris route / the Brussels-Paris route
a current–voltage graph / a current-voltage graph
2010–2014 / 2010-2014