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10.1. Punctuation

10.1.1. Full stop

A full stop marks the end of a sentence. All footnotes end with a full stop. Do not use a full stop at the end of a heading.

No further full stop is required if a sentence ends with an ellipsis (…), with an abbreviation that takes a point (e.g. ‘etc.’) or with a quotation complete in itself that ends in a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark before the closing quote:

Winston Churchill said: ‘A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty.’

Truncations (in which the end of the word is deleted) are followed by a full stop (e.g. Co., Art., Chap.), but contractions (in which the middle of the word is removed) are not (e.g. Dr, Ms, Ltd). See also Section 10.8 and Annexes A3 and A4.

Run-in side heads, i.e. headings that are followed by more text on the same line, are followed by a full stop, not a colon.

Engaging citizens. The year 2013 was designated the European Year of Citizens.

(See also Section 10.1.10 on ellipses.)

Last updated: 12.12.2022
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