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5.9.2. References to the treaties

In references to treaty articles, careful attention must be paid to the different historical changes that have occurred, particularly with regard to the renumbering of the Treaty on European Union. After each treaty amendment, acts prior to the amendment must retain their numbering and original title.

Treaty of Paris (1952)
(signature: 18.4.1951, entry into force: 23.7.1952)

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established by the Treaty of Paris, which expired on 23 July 2002.

Treaties of Rome (1958)
(signature: 25.3.1957, entry into force: 1.1.1958)

The European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom, or EEAC) were created by the Treaties of Rome.

Treaty of Brussels (1967)
(signature: 8.4.1965, entry into force: 1.7.1967)

The Treaty of Brussels, also called the ‘Merger Treaty’, aimed at modernising the European Union institutions by establishing a single Commission and a single Council for the three Communities that existed at the time (ECSC, EEC and Euratom). It was repealed by the Treaty of Amsterdam.

Treaty of Maastricht (1993)
(signature: 7.2.1992, entry into force: 1.11.1993)

After the entry into force of the Treaty of Maastricht, or ‘Treaty on European Union’ (EU Treaty or TEU), the name ‘European Economic Community’ was replaced by ‘European Community’. The EEC Treaty became the EC Treaty.

The EU Treaty consisted of articles designated by letters or by letters and numbers: ‘Article A or Article K.1 of the EU Treaty’). Care had to be taken not to use the wrong references, such as ‘Article 130a of the Treaty on European Union’, which was a reference to the EC Treaty.

The formula ‘as amended by the EU Treaty’ had to be avoided (e.g. ‘Article 130a of the EC Treaty’ had to be used and not ‘Article 130a of the EC Treaty as amended by the EU Treaty’).

Treaty of Amsterdam (1999)
(signature: 2.10.1997, entry into force: 1.5.1999)

Pursuant to Article 12 of the Treaty of Amsterdam, the articles of the EU Treaty were renumbered (Articles A, B, C, etc. became Articles 1, 2, 3, etc.), as shown in a correlation table given in the said treaty.

Treaty of Amsterdam:

Treaty of Nice (2003)
(signature: 26.2.2001, entry into force: 1.2.2003)

The Treaty of Nice aimed at reforming the institutions to ensure that the EU could continue to function effectively after its enlargement to 25 Member States.

Treaty of Lisbon (2009)
(signature: 13.12.2007, entry into force: 1.12.2009)

Pursuant to Article 5 of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU Treaty was again subject to renumbering, as shown in a correlation table annexed to the Treaty of Lisbon.

Correlation table, Treaty of Lisbon:

The Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty or TEC) was amended and renamed the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

The expression ‘European Community’ within the meaning of the EC Treaty was replaced by ‘European Union’. Consequently, the term ‘Community’ must be replaced by ‘Union’ or the relevant appropriate expression:

Union policy (not ‘Community policy’)
currencies of non-EU countries (not ‘currencies of non-Community countries’)
‘Community’ is still permitted in relation to the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom Treaty) and must remain when used in historical references.
See also Section 3.4.1 (order of citation of the treaties in acts).
Last updated: 29.8.2019
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